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??ҳ > ??????? > GPS/????

ȫ??λϵͳ(GPS)?ڸ??ٹ?·?????е?Ӧ??

2013-07-08 21:48:08????Դ: ?????̳?????ߣ?
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    1??????
   1.1GPS???????

????ȫ??λϵͳ(GPS)??????????????ҪΪ??????²??ŶԺ??ϡ?½?غͿ?????ʩ???и߾??ȵ????Ͷ?λ??Ҫ????????ġ???ϵͳ?ӱ?????70???????ʼ??ơ????ơ???????????˼?룬???ý??????Ƿ????α?????????(P??)Ϊ????????????????֯???˾??ṩ?׼???????λ??ͬʱ????λ????Ϊ??ʮ?׵?C/A??α???ṩ???õ?????λ??

????GPS??Ϊ??һ?????ǵ????붨λϵͳ??????????ȫ???ԡ?ȫ????????ľ?????ά?????붨λ?????????Ҿ??????õĿ??????Ժͱ????ԡ?ȫ??λϵͳ??Ѹ?ٷ?չ???????˸??????²??ź͹?????ò????ձ??ע??GPS??λ?????ĸ߶??Զ??????????ﵽ?ĸ߾??Ⱥ;??е?DZ????Ҳ?????˹??????????ߵļ?????Ȥ??

????70???δ??80???????????ѧ?ߵ??о?????GPS???ǵ??ز??ź?Ҳ???????ڶ?λ?????ṩ??α?ඨλ?ߵö?ľ??ȡ??ر????ز???λ??ֶ?λ?????ij??֣??ƶ??????ڲ???????Ʒ?Ľ??ջ??????ơ???ʱGPS??λ??????ֻ??һ????ҵģʽ——??̬??Զ?λ????̨??????̨GPS???ջ??????ڴ??????ϣ?????ͬ???۲?ͬһ??????1??2h???????һЩʱ?䣬ͨ???۲????ݵĺ??????????????????Ļ??????????ڲ??ù㲥???????????£???̬??λ????ȡ??5mm+1PPm(˫Ƶ)??10mm+2PPm(??Ƶ)???߽⾫?ȡ?

????80???δ????????FARA(????δ֪?????ٱƽ?????)?????ϵĿ??پ?̬??λΪ?̻??߲?????ҵ??????һ????·??????????GPS???????Ͷ??????ʡ?һ??GPS????ϵͳ(˫Ƶ)??10km???ڵĶ??ϣ?????????4??5??????5min???ң????ɻ?ȡ5??10mm+1ppm?Ļ??߾??ȣ???1??2h????????ʱ?侲̬??λ?Ľ?????????¡?
?
      ?????꣬?ر???1993??Leica??˾????ROFAmbiguityResulationontheFly)??λ??????????ʵ???˶?̬??????????δ֪????ʼ?????ʵʱGPS?????ؼ?????????Ʒ??????GPS???????̿???????????ƣ??׷??Ƴ????Ե?GPS?????²?Ʒ???еİ????????Ͳ?Ʒ??֮ΪGPSȫվ?ǣ??еij?֮ΪRTK(ʵʱ??̬????)???еij?֮ΪRTGPS??


??????֮??GPS???????????豸?IJ??Ϸ?չ??ʹ??GPS???????????????죬GPS???????ܸ??????ƣ?GPS????Ӧ??????㣬????GPS?????豸?۸??õ????????????Ӽ?㣬ʹGPS????????ʵ?û????Զ?????

     1.2GPS???????ص?
????????ھ??????ѧ??˵??GPS??????Ҫ???????ص㣺

????(1)??վ֮??????ͨ?ӡ???վ???໥ͨ??һֱ?Dz???ѧ?????⡣GPS??һ?ص㣬ʹ??ѡ????????㡣????վ?Ͽձ??뿪??????ʹ????GPS?????źŲ??ܸ??š?

????(2)??λ???ȸߡ?һ??˫ƵGPS???ջ????߽⾫??Ϊ5mm+1ppm?????????DZ?ƾ???Ϊ5mm+5ppm??GPS????????????????൱???????ž??????????GPS??????Խ??????ͻ????????ʵ??֤??????С??50km?Ļ????ϣ?????Զ?λ???ȿɴ?12×10-6??????100??500km?Ļ????Ͽɴ?10-6??10-7??

????(3)?۲?ʱ??̡???С??20km?Ķ̻????ϣ???????Զ?λһ??ֻ??
5min?۲?ʱ?伴?ɡ?


????(4)?ṩ??ά???ꡣGPS?????ھ?ȷ?ⶨ?۲?վƽ??λ?õ?ͬʱ?????Ծ?ȷ?ⶨ?۲?վ?Ĵ?ظ̡߳?

????(5)??????㡣GPS???????Զ????̶Ⱥܸߡ??ڹ۲??в???Ա????Ҫ?????ǰ?װ??????????????ȡ?????ߺͼ????????Ĺ???״̬?????????۲⹤???????ǵIJ??񣬸??ٹ۲?Ⱦ????????Զ???ɡ?

????(6)ȫ?????ҵ??GPS?۲?????κεص㣬?κ?ʱ???????ؽ??У?һ?㲻??????״????Ӱ?졣

     2GPS?????ڹ?·?????е?Ӧ??ʵ??

??????··??һ?㴦??һ????״?????ڡ???ƽ????Ʋ??????????õ?????ʽ??????????ϵ??ߡ??պϵ??ߡ???㵼?ߵȵ???????ʽ????????Ҫ??????????š??ش??š??????????ȣ?Ҳ?в??????????????????????ʽ??

     2.1???????????????ȱ??

????(1)?淶?Ը??ϵ??߳????պϵ??߳?????㵼?߼䳤?ȵ????ϸ?涨??һ????ڸߵȼ???·??Ҫ??ﵽһ??????Ҫ???????????߸??ϻ?պϳ???????ó???10km????㵼?߽???಻?ܳ??????ϵ??߳??ȵ?0.7????????Ҫ??һ????ʵ????ҵ?????Դﵽ?????????ֳ??淶??ҵ??

????(2)?Ѽ?????????·?߲??????Ƶ???????һ????ѱ?֤Ϊͬһ????ϵͳ?????????⡢???⡢???п??Ƶ????һ????ʹ???ϵͳ??ļ????????⣬????ò????ݵ?????㣬?Ʊ?Ӱ???????????

????(3)???Ҵ?ص??ƻ?????Ӱ???????ҵ?????ڹ??һ??????Ƶ㣬???Ϊ50??60?????ɣ?????30???꣬??Щ?????ھ??ý??????Ҫ???ƻ?????Щ????????????ȱ??֪ʶ????Ϊ?ƻ???????Щ????????·?߲?????ҵ????????50km???Ͼ??Ҳ??????ߵ?????㡣????·?߿??Ʋ??????????ò?????֤??

????(4)????ͨ??????????Ӱ?쳣???????ʵʩ??һ??·?ߵĿ??Ƶ?Ҫ?????ھ?·?ߵ?300m??Χ?ڡ?????ͨ?ӵ?ԭ????һ???????????㣬?????ڴ?Χ???֡??ܹ༰??ɴ?ʵ??????????޷?ʵʩ??????Ʋ?????

???????ڳ??????????ش????ó???????????о??ޣ?
????(5)???????????ش??ŵȹ?????һ??Ҫ??????ȼ???4?????ϡ??ó???????????????????????Ӳ???????ӳ??۲?ʱ??ȷ?ʱ???ѹ??ķ??????跨??߾??ȡ?

????(6)???????????ش??Ŷ?Ϊ???θ??????ѵش??????г?????Ʋ?????Ϊͨ?Ӻ????Σ????????????????൱????????????úܴ???ҵ??ࡣ

????(7)???????????ش??ŵĿ??????߾??ȼ???·?????ĵ;????νӣ???˵??ƽ??????Եõ??˷????????ڵ??????????ѣ???????IJ??????????ܴ??Ҳ?̫???㡣ʵ?ʹ????У???????Ŀ??Ʋ?????·?ߵĿ??Ʋ????????????ѽ?????

????????GPS?????ܿ˷??????оٵ?ȱ?ݣ????????ҵ??Ч?ʣ??????Ͷ?ǿ?ȣ???֤?˸ߵȼ???·??????????
???????????ʵ????????Ӧ??GPS??????ٳ?һЩӦ??ʵ????

     2.2GPS???????ڼ??ܹ??ҿ??Ƶ?

????????????????????????ٹ?·?????????ݱ???????·?߳?Լ60km??????????Ϊ????????·?????Ϊ6??????

?????ö???11??????ϵͳ??ƽ????Ƶ㣬????ʵ??Ѱ?ң??ҳ???7??????4?????ƻ????ƻ?????2?????Ң?ȵ㡣?????ҳ??ĵ?7?????Ƶ??У????Ҳ???ϵͳ??ȵ?1??????ȵ?1???????в???ϵͳ??2?????ܲξ??ص?3??????Щƽ????Ƶ??????ͬ????ϵͳ???ҵȼ???ͬ??

????Ϊ??߾?????????????ٹ?·?????????ݱ??????β??????????????ڹ??Ҳ??ϵͳ???????п??Ƶ?ļ??ܡ????ܵĿ??Ƶ㲼?跽???ǣ??ع?··??ÿ10km????һ?Ե㣬?öԵ????Լ1km????Ӧͨ?????á????????öι?????6??GPS???ܵ㣬???ܵ?ľ???Ҫ?ﵽ?ĵȿ???????Ҫ??GPS?ĵ?????18??????ɣ?????????ͼ??ͼ1??
ͼ1???????????ݱ?????GPS?ĵȹ??Ҵ?ص???ܸ??ĵ???????4̨Trimble SE400??Ƶ???ջ???ҵ???û??ı?ƾ???Ϊ10mm+2PPm???ĵ????Ĺ۲?ʱ??Ϊ90min?????ݲ??????Ϊ15s??

????????Ԥ???????ó????ṩ??TrimvecPlus??????ƽ?????????人???Ƽ???ѧ???Ƶ?GPSADJVer2.0????????
????ͨ??ƽ????????ĵ?????????λ?????Ϊ4.11cm??ƽ????λ?????3.18cm????????????????1/27669??ƽ???߳?????????1/453578??

?????????ĵ?????ҵ????4dʱ?䡣??Ч?ʽϳ???????ֶ????????3????
?????ڴ˻????ϣ???Ժͬ????ʡ???֡?????ʡ?ڶ????Ժ???????ھ???????????ߺ??????????ݻ????ν????˽?600km??GPS???ܹ??ҿ??Ƶ?IJ??????õ???·?߿?Խ????ɽ????????ɽ???ֲ??ïʢ?????ε?ò???ӡ?ͨ?????????????һ?????????ǵ??ƻ????أ??????ڿɹ????õ????ǵ?ϡ?٣???·?????ȷ?Χ?ڽ??ҵ?7????????õĹ??????ǵ㡣

????????ƽ????????????????λ?????Ϊ4.13cm????????????????Ϊ1/12.5?򡣿??????ĸ???ָ??ﵽ?????????????ĵ????ļ???Ҫ??

??????600km??GPS??????????????????ҵ?飬10????ҵԱ??7̨GPS???ջ???Լ20d????ҵʱ?䡣?????ó??????????????ͬ???ֵ?????£???????Ҫ?????µ?ʱ???????ɡ?

     2.3GPS???????????????Ʋ???

?????ھ???????????????????ٹ?·?̳??ؾ???????????ɽ˫??ֱ????ƽ????????????????Ҷ?????׮?ŷֱ?ΪZK144+710??ZK147+730??YK144+730??YK147+740???䶴???ֱ?Ϊ3020m??3010m?????ݡ???·?????????̡??ж???????𻮷ֱ?׼??????·?س???????????????ڹᡡͨ???϶Թ?ͨ???Ӱ??ֵ??ֵΪ±55mm??

????????ɽ?????ش????ȴ??????????????桢???ݴ????????????ܣ?Ұ????ҵ????ʮ?ּ?࣬?ɳ??淽????????ʱ??????????ѡ?????ѣ????????????󡣽?Ͽ???ɽ??????????????GPS??????????????ͼ2??ʾ??GPS????????

????????ɽ????????????14??????ɣ???????̱߳?Ϊ100.842m?????߳?Ϊ3597.4m??ƽ???߳?Ϊ1104.848m??

????????Wild 200 GPS???ջ????о?̬?۲⣬?۲?ʱ??Ϊ20??50min????????Ϊ10s?????۲???29????????????

????????ƽ?????????????????Ծ???Ϊ1/60106???????Ծ??ȴ?1/137????????λ?????Ϊ±0.83cm???ڹ?ͨ???Ϲ?ͨ????????߷ֱ?Ϊ±0.707cm??±0.693cm??

????ͨ??ʵʩGPS?????ɿ?????
????(1)GPS???????????????Ʋ????????㣬?ܴ???ʡ????????????????Ұ?⿳??????????????һЩ????Ҫ?Ĺ??ɵ㡣
????(2)GPS???????м??ߵľ??ȣ?????ȫ?ܴﵽ????·?????̡?????????????Ҫ??
????(3)GPS?????Ϻ????ǵ??߲??????????Ч??4??5????

    2.4GPS?????ش??ſ??Ʋ???
??????Ƴ?????·?????????᳤???????Ƹ??кͶ????еĹ?·?ش??š?Ϊ???ڴ?????ƺ?ʩ????????GPS????ѡ?????󡢢???λ???Т??ƽ????Ʋ???????????Ʒ???Ϊ˫????ı???(??ͼ3)????ֱ?ڽ???ij???ԼΪ1200m??ƽ???ڽ???Ķ̱?ԼΪ500m??˫????ı????????????Ң?????ϴ?ص????⡣

????????ƽ???????????????Ϊ????????λ?????1.93cm???????߳?????????1/113000???????ˢ??ƽ????Ʋ????ľ???Ҫ??

     2.5GPS???????ڵ??߿??Ʋ???

??????????ٹ?·?ӱ???????????̨?εش?????ƽԭ??????ƽ̹???????Ը߲?Լ20m??ƽ??????Լ50m?????ڴ?ׯ?϶ࡣֲ????ΪС?????????????·?????????ܼ???

??????????̨Wild 200 GPS???ջ????е??߲???????ҵ??ʽ???õ????ӷ?ʽ????̨???ջ?ͬʱ??ҵ????ҵ?????ǰ????(??ͼ4)??
?
?????񡢢򡢢?ֱ??ʾ?۲??ͬ??????

??????GPS?۲?֮ǰ???????߾??Ⱥ??⵼?߲???(EDM)??ˮ׼??????

?????????г?ͬʱʩ??GPS?ͳ????????10.88km?ıȽϽ????GPS?????۲?ʱ??7.5min??30??Ԫ????????GPS?????????????ǵ???ƽ?????Ƚϣ??õ??ϲ??????mx=±0.057m,my=±0.049m,??λ?????Ϊ±0.075m??
??????GPS????????뾫??ˮ׼????????Ƚϣ??õ??߳??????Ϊ±0.049m??

????ͨ??ʵ?ʲ????ɿ?????
????(1)GPS?۲?ʱ??Ϊ7.5min???볣??????Dz?????ȣ?ʱ????????Լ
20min??Ч??Ϊ4??????ȫվ?Dz?????ȣ?ʱ??????Լ8min??Ч??Ϊ2????

????(2)GPS???߲????ɿ??Ժã?ƽ?澫?Ⱥ͸߳̾??Ⱦ?????????ٹ?·??
???Ҫ??

    2.6GPS??????????Ӱ??????ҵ???Ƶ????
??????Ӱ????һ???ط??к???ĺ??ߣ?ÿ??һ???????Ҫ??Ұ??ʵ?ز???һ????????ƽ??͸߳̿??Ƶ?(??ͼ5)??Ұ??ƽ?߿??Ƶ?ļ??n????????????????ͼ?ı????߶???????1??2000????ͼ????Ӱ??????Ϊ110000?????nһ??Ϊ4??6????Ӱ???ߡ?
?????????Ұ??ƽ?߿??Ƶ?IJ????????????غ??㷽???赼?ߣ?Ȼ???ڴ˻????ϲ???֧???߷????ⶨ??????ص㡣???ַ?????Ҫ?ǵ??߷?ʽ?????????ں???????Ϲ㣬??23cm×23cm?????1??10000??Ӱ?????ߣ????Ƿ?ΧΪ2.3km????˫???߸??Ƿ?Χ???????????????Χ?ڽ??е??߲?????????????ʵ???????????ƣ?????ҵ???൱???ģ??ҹ?????????ҵ???ڳ???

?????ھ???????????????????ٹ?·?????????ݱ?????????60km·?ߵĺ?????ҵ?У?????4̨TrimbleSE4000???ջ?????һ̨????̨GPS???ջ??̶?????֪???ϣ?????GPS???ջ??ζ?????ص??????ص???ά?????????ȫ?ߺ?????ص????????5d??ҵʱ?䡣

????????ƽ???????ص?ƽ???λ???ȴﵽ??????0.10m?ľ??ȣ???????????????Ϊ1/43734??

??????ص?ĸ߳?GPS???????2.7?н??ܡ?

?????ɴ˿ɼ???GPS????????????ƣ????????и߾??ȣ????Ҿ??м????????ԡ????ı????𲽿??ƵIJ???ģʽ????Ч?ʽϳ??淽?????5?????ϡ?
??Ȩ????????վ??????????Դ?????磨??????Ͷ?壩????????Ȩ??????ϵ????ɾ????????