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??ҳ > 3S > GIS

????GIS????????????

2014-10-24 20:34:03????Դ: ?????
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?????????½????˱Ƚϳ??õ?һЩ??????Ϣϵͳ?????????????????????GIS??????ESRI??Intergraph??MapInfo????????Ʒ???Լ???????????????MapGIS??GeoStar??Citystar?? ???ܵ??????????ڸ?????˾???????????Լ?WWW?ϸ?????˾????ҳ?????dz?ȥ??????“??һ”??“???”?ȵ????δʻ㡣???⣬?????????ڲ??????????ڱ?????Ҳ??????˵???????汾?ţ?????Ҳ??????????????ȱ?㣬ֻ?Ǽ?Ҫ?г??˸?????????ģ?????ƺ͹???Ŀ?ꡣ ??Щ???????ṩ?????ƵĹ??ܼ??ϣ???֮ͬ????????????ʵ?ַ?ʽ?????û????棬???????̣????Ͳ???Ч?ʣ????ٶȡ????????????????????ԣ?Ҳ??˵????GIS?????ij??졣  

1??ESRI??Ʒϵ??

ESRI??˾??Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc.????1969 ??????????????????????ݵ?Redlands?У???˾??Ҫ????GIS?????????Ŀ?????GIS?????????? ESRI?IJ?Ʒ?У?????Ҫ??????????UNIX/Windows NTƽ̨?ϵ?ArcInfo??????????????ɣ?Workstation ArcInfo??Desktop ArcInfo?? 1??Workstation ArcInfo????????????ģ?ͣ?ʵ????ͼ?⣨Map Library???Ĺ????????Ҿ?????դ?????ݵķ??????ܣ?֧??դ??ʸ??һ?廯??ѯ?͵?????ʾ?????⣬ArcInfo ???ṩ?˶??ο???????AML?Լ????ſ???????ODE???Ա????û??????Լ???GISӦ?á? Workstation ArcInfo?ṩ?????????GIS???ܣ?????????¼??ͱ༭??ͶӰ?任????ͼ???????ѯ??????????????ܣ????????????????Ӹ??Ϸ????ȵȣ??? ???????????????????⣬Workstation ArcInfo??ͨ??һЩ??չģ??ʵ???ض???ר?Ź??ܣ? TIN?????ڲ????????????ĵر?ģ?????ɡ???ʾ?ͷ???ģ?飬???Ը??ݵȸ??ߡ??̵߳㡢??????????DEM????????ͨ?ӡ????桢???ڷ?????ȡ? GRID??դ?????????ģ?飬???Զ?դ?????ݽ??????롢?༭????ʾ??????????????????ģ?Ͱ???????դ????г??????????ȷ???????ɢģ?͵ȡ? NETWORK?????????ģ?飬?ṩ?????·??ѡ????Դ???䡢Ͻ???滮???????????ȹ??ܣ?????Ӧ???ڽ?ͨ??????????????????Ĺ????͹滮?? ARCSCAN??ɨ??ʸ????ģ?顣 ARCSTORM?????ڿͻ???/?????????ƽ????????ݿ????ģ?飬???Թ?????????ͼ?????ݡ? COGO???????ڴ???һЩ?ռ?Ҫ?صļ??ι?ϵ?????????ֲ????͹?????ͼ?? ArcPress??ͼ?????ģ?飬???Խ???ͼ????ת????ΪPostScript??ʽ?????ɷ?ɫ?ư档 ArcSDE??SDEָ?ռ????????棨Spatial Database Engine????????һ???????Ŀռ?????ģ?ͣ?ͨ???????Խ??ռ????ݼ??뵽??ϵ???ݿ????ϵͳ??ȥ???????ڿͻ???/???????????ṩ?˶????ݽ??в????ķ??ʽӿڣ?֧?ֶ??û??????ﴦ???Ͱ汾???????û???????ArcSDE??Ϊ???????????ƿ????????Ӧ??ϵͳ?? ARC/INFO??ͼ????? Ϊ???ܹ??????ֲ??ڲ?ͬͼ???Ķ??ר??Ҫ?أ???ARC/INFO??ͼ???У??ѵ?ͼ?????????Ϊ“ͼ?㣨Layer??”????ˮƽ?????Ϊ“ͼ?飨Tile??”????ͼA2-1??ʾ?? ͼA2-1??ARC/INFO??ͼ????? ????ͼ?У?????ͬһ????IJ?ͬר??ͼ?鹹??һ??“??ͼ??Map??”?????????ַ?ʽ?Ĺ????????Ը??????ݻ?????Χ?????????ص????ݣ????ұ???ʵ?????ݹ??????Ͳ??????ʿ??ơ? 2??Desktop ArcInfo????????Ӧ?ã?Arc Map??Arc Catalog??Arc Toolbox??Arc Mapʵ???˵?ͼ???ݵ???ʾ????ѯ?ͷ?????Arc Catalog???ڻ???Ԫ???ݵĶ?λ??????͹????ռ????ݣ?Arc Toolbox???ɳ??????ݷ?????????????ɵĹ????䡣 3??ArcView GIS??ͼA2-2????ESRI??????GISϵͳ?????Թ???Ϊ???ģ?ʵ???˶Ե?ͼ???ݡ??ṹ???????????ݡ?ͳ??ͼ????ͼͼ?????á????????Եȶ????ĵ??Ĺ??????????ṩ?ű?????Avenueʹ?û????Զ???ϵͳ???⣬ArcView????“???”????ʽ?ṩ??һЩ??չģ?飬?????? Spatial Analyst??դ?????ݵĽ?ģ?????? Network Analyst??????????? ArcPress????ͼ????? 3D Analyst??????DEMʵ????ά͸??ͼ?????ɣ? Image Analyst??Ӱ??????????? Tracking Analyst??ͨ??ֱ?ӽ??ա??ط?ʵʱ???ݣ?ʵ?ֶ?GPS??֧?֡?   ͼA2-2??ArcView GIS?û????? 4??MapObjects??һ?鹩Ӧ?ÿ?????Աʹ?õ?GIS????OCX??OLE Custom Control???ؼ????û????Բ?????????֧??OCX?Ŀ???ƽ̨????Visual Basic??Delphi?ȣ?????MapObjects???????????Ӧ??ϵͳ?? 5??ArcFM??֧?ֹ?????ʩ?滮???????ͷ????ģ?顣 6??Internet Map Server(IMS)??ʵ???????????ϵ??????ݷ??????ܡ?  

2??Intergraph??Ʒϵ??

Intergraph??˾??????1969?꣬?ܲ?λ???????????????ݵĺ?˹ά???У???˾?????ڼ??????????ơ??????Լ?רҵ??ͼ?????Ӳ???????Լ?????֧?֡? Intergraph?ṩ??GIS??Ʒ????רҵGISϵͳ??MGE????????GISϵͳ??GeoMedia?????Լ???????GISϵͳ??GeoMedia Web Map???? 1??MGE??????IntergraphרҵGIS??????Ʒ?壬???????????Ʒģ?飬?ṩ?˴?ɨ??ͼ??ʸ??????I/GEOVEC???????˿ռ??????MGE Analyst??????ͼ?????????MGE Map Finisher???Ļ???GIS???ܣ????⻹??????????һЩ??չģ?飬ʵ????ͼ??????????I/RAS C??MGE Image Analyst?????????????MGE Network Analyst??????????????MGE Grid Analyst????????ģ?ͷ?????MGE Terrain Analyst????????????ά?ĵ??????????MGE Voxel Analyst????һϵ????ǿ???ܡ? 2??GeoMedia Professional??ͼA2-3????Ƴ?Ϊ???׼??ϵ???ݿ?һ?????????ڿռ????ݲɼ??͹?????GIS??Ʒ???????ռ?ͼ?????ݺ????????ݶ?????ڱ?׼??ϵ???ݿ⣨Microsoft Access???У???һ???̶????????ϵͳ???ȶ??ԺͿ????ԣ?????????????ݲɼ????༭????????Ч?ʡ???֧?ֶ???????Դ??????????GIS???????̵??????ļ??Լ????ֹ?ϵ???ݿ⣻ʵ????ʸ??դ??ļ??ɲ??????ṩ?˶??ֿռ???????ܣ????⣬GeoMedia????????һЩģ?飬??Ӧ???ڲ?ͬ?ľ??????? GeoMedia Network??????Ӧ???ڽ?ͨ?????Լ??߼?????Ĺ????????????滮????????????·????ѯ????·?滮?ȹ??ܡ? GeoMedia SmartSketch?????н?ǿ??ͼ?α༭????????һ??????????????(CAD)?????? GeoMedia Relation Moduler?????ڽ????豸????????ϵ??????Ӧ????????ˮ??ú?????????????Ĺ????Լ??豸???١? GeoMedia Object??GeoMedia?ǻ??ڿؼ???ϵͳ???????????OCX?ؼ?????????Щ?ؼ????û????Կ????????Ӧ??ϵͳ?? GeoMedia MFworks??????դ?????ݵķ???ģ?飬???????ֿؼ??????????? GeoMedia Oracle GDO Server?????Խ?????????д?뵽Oracle???ݿⲢ??????   ͼA2-3??GeoMedia?û????? 3??GeoMedia WebMap??Intergraph?ṩ?Ļ??????????Ŀռ???Ϣ???????ߡ????ṩ?˶?Դ???ݵ?ֱ?ӷ??ʺͷ?????????֧?ֶ??????????GeoMedia WebMap Enterprise?????ܹ??????????Ϸ???????֮?⣬???ṩ?˿ռ?????????绺??????????·????????????????ȣ??û??????ڿͻ???ͨ?????????????󣬲??????????????????????м??㲢????????ظ??û???  

3??Mapinfo??Ʒϵ??

MapInfo??˾??1986?????????????????(Troy)?У????????????ù?˾һֱ???????ṩ?Ƚ??????ݿ??ӻ?????Ϣ??ͼ?????????????????????????ͼ??Ϣϵͳ????——MapInfo?? 1??MapInfo Professional?ǣ?ͼA2-4??MapInfo??˾??Ҫ????????Ʒ????֧?ֶ??ֱ??ػ???Զ?????ݿ⣬?Ϻõ?ʵ???????ݿ??ӻ??????ɸ???ר???ͼ?????⻹?ܹ?????һЩ?ռ??ѯ?Ϳռ???????㣬?绺?????ȵȣ???ͨ????̬ͼ??֧??GPS???ݡ? 2??MapBasic??Ϊ??Mapinfoƽ̨?Ͽ????û????Ƴ???ı?????ԣ???ʹ????BASIC????һ?µĺ???????䣬?????û????ա?ͨ??MapBasic???ж??ο??????ܹ???չMapInfo???ܣ?????????Ӧ??ϵͳ???ɡ?   ͼA2-4??MapInfo Professional?û????? 3??MapInfo ProServer??Ӧ???????绷???µĵ?ͼӦ?÷?????????ʹ??MapInfo Professional?????ڷ??????ˣ????ܹ???Ӧ?û??IJ??????󣻶??ͻ??˿???ʹ???κα?׼??Web????????????ڷ??????Ͽ??????ж??MapInfo Professionalʵ???????????û??ķ??????󣬴Ӷ???ʡ??Ͷ?ʡ? 4??MapInfo MapX??MapInfo?ṩ??OCX?ؼ??? 5??MapInfo MapXtrem?ǻ???Internet/Extranet?ĵ?ͼӦ?÷????????????????ڰ?????????ҵ??Internet?? 6??SpatialWare???ڶ???——??ϵ???ݿ⻷???»???SQL???пռ??ѯ?ͷ????Ŀռ???Ϣ????ϵͳ????SpatialWare?У?֧?ּ򵥵Ŀռ???󣬴Ӷ?֧?ֿռ??ѯ?????ܲ????µļ??ζ?????ʵ??Ӧ???У?һ??ʹ??SpatialWare??Ϊ???ݷ?????????MapInfo Professional??Ϊ?ͻ??ˣ????????ϵͳ????Ч?ʡ? 7??Vertical Mapper?ṩ?˻???????????ݷ??????ߡ?    

4??????GIS????

 

 

MapGIS

MapGIS??ͼA2-5?????й????ʴ?ѧ?????ĵ?????Ϣϵͳ???????书??ģ??????? 1??????????ģ?飺?ṩ?˸??ֵĿռ??????????ֶΣ????????ֻ??????룬ɨ??ʸ?????????Լ?GPS???롣 2?????ݴ???ģ?飺???ԶԵ㡢?ߡ?????εȶ???ʸ?????ݽ??д??????????޸ı༭???????顢ͶӰ?任?ȹ??ܡ? 3??????????????Խ????źõ?ͼ????ʾ????Ļ?????????ָ???豸?ϣ?Ҳ????????PostScript??EPS?ļ??? 4??????ת?????ṩ??MapGIS??????ϵͳ֮??????ת???Ĺ??ܡ? 5?????ݿ??????ʵ???˶Կռ?????????ݿ??????ά???? 6???ռ???????ṩ?˰???DTM???????ռ???ӷ??????????????һϵ?пռ???????ܡ? 7??ͼ??????ͼ????׼??Ƕ?Լ?????????ģ?顣 8??????ɳ??ϵͳ??ʵʱ???ɵ?????ά???档 9?????ָ߳?ģ?ͣ????Ը?????ɢ?̵߳???ߵȸ??߲?ֵ???????񻯵?DEM??????????Ӧ?ķ?????????????????ڱνǼ???ȵȡ?   ͼA2-5??MapGIS?û?????

GeoStar

CeoStar??????֮?ǣ????人???Ƽ???ѧ?????ġ???????????ݹ????ĵ?????Ϣϵͳ???????书??ģ???????  1??GeoStar????????ϵͳ?Ļ???ģ?飨ͼA2-6?????ṩ?Ĺ??ܰ????ռ????ݹ????????ݲɼ???ͼ?α༭???ռ??ѯ??????ר????ͼ?ͷ?????ơ?Ԫ???ݹ????ȣ??Ӷ?֧?ִ?????¼?뵽??ͼ?????????GIS???????̡?   ͼA2-6??GeoStar?û????? 2??GeoGrid ?????ֵ???ģ?ͺ?????????Ӱ??Ĵ?????????ģ?顣 3??GeoTIN????????ɢ?̵߳㽨??TIN????????ֵ?õ?DEM??????????ط??????????ά???????ɡ? 4??GeoImager?????Խ???ң??ͼ??Ĵ?????Ӱ????ͼ?? 5??GeoImageDB?????Խ?????߶ȵ?ң??Ӱ?????ݿ?ϵͳ?? 6??GeoSurf??????Javaʵ?ֵ????????ռ???Ϣ????ϵͳ?? 7??GeoScan??ͼ??ɨ??ʸ????ģ?飬֧?ַ???ʶ??

 

Citystar

Citystar??????֮?ǣ???????Ϣϵͳ?????ɱ?????ѧ???????ƣ???һ??????????Ӧ?õ?GISƽ̨???????ģ??????? 1??Citystar?༭ģ?飺ʸ?????ݵ?¼?롢?༭?? 2??Citystar??ѯ????ģ?飨ͼA2-7????ʸ??դ???ۺϵĿռ????ݹ???????ѯ??????ģ?飬?ṩ?˶??ֿռ?ģ?????㡣 3??Citystar??ͼģ?飺?ṩ?˵?ͼ??????????Լ????????????ܣ?ͬʱҲ????????Ӱ???ͼ?? 4??Citystarɨ??ʸ????ģ?飺?ṩ????״ͼ??ɨ?衢ϸ???????ٲ?ʸ??????һϵ?в??????????ڵ???ͼ?ȸ??ߵ?¼?롣 5??Citystar???ӿ???ģ?飺????OCX?ؼ???ʹ?û????Խ??ж??ο???????ģ???ṩ??һ??ƽ̨????װ?ؼ??Ĺ??ܣ??????û?ʹ?ã?ͬʱʵ???˶?Դ???ݵĹ????Ͳ?ѯ??ʹ?û????Է???Ĺ???Ӧ?á? 6??Citystarң??ͼ????ģ?飺?ṩ?˴?ң??ͼ?????????ǿ???任??????????ȡר????Ϣ???????̵Ĺ??ܡ? 7??Citystar???ֵ???ģ?飺??ֵ?ߡ???ɢ???ֵ????DEM????????DEM???и??ַ????? 8??Citystar??άģ?飺????DEM????ά???????ɺͲ?ѯ?????? 9??Citystar GPSģ?飺GPS???ݵĽ??ա???ʾ?ͷ?????   ͼA2-7??Citystar?û?????