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2013-08-23 18:30:47????Դ: ?????̳
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ʱ?????ݿ?ʱ?????ݿ???һ????????ʱ̬???ݡ??ռ????ݺ?ʱ?????ݣ?????ͬʱ???????ݶ????ʱ??Ϳռ????Ե????ݿ⡣ʱ?????ݿ?ϵͳ???о??漰?????ݿ??о????????????ʱ??????ģ?͡?ʱ?ղ?ѯ???Ժ?ʱ???????㷨?ȵȡ???һ?????????????ݿ?????ĸ????ԣ???һ???棬??????????Ϊʱ??Ϳռ?????ṩ?˼?Ϊ????????̨????ʵ????????????ʵ?????ʱ????????????н?ͨ?????صij?????ɭ?ֻ??ֵĻ???????Ͷ????о??еĺ???Ǩ?Ƶȣ?????Ҫʹ??ʱ?????ݿ??????????ƶ????????ݿ???ʱ?????ݿ??о???һ????Ҫ??֧????ͨ????չ???ݿ???ʵ???????ݿ??б?ʾ?ƶ?ʵ????Ϣ???ṩ??Ӧ?IJ?ѯ????֧?ֶ??ƶ??????˶?״̬?IJ?ѯ??
???????ݿ??ӻ????ݿ??ӻ??ǹ???????֮?Ӿ???????ʽ???о??????У????????ݵ??Ӿ???????ʽ??????Ϊһ????ij?ָ?Ҫ??ʽ???????????Ϣ????????Ӧ??Ϣ??λ?ĸ??????Ժͱ?????
???ݿ??ӻ??????Ļ???˼???ǽ????ݿ???ÿһ??????????Ϊ????ͼԪԪ?ر?ʾ???????????ݼ?????????ͼ??ͬʱ?????ݵĸ???????ֵ?Զ?ά???ݵ???ʽ??ʾ?????ԴӲ?ͬ??ά?ȹ۲????ݣ??Ӷ??????ݽ??и?????Ĺ۲?ͷ?????
???ݿ??ӻ???Ҫּ?ڽ?????ͼ?λ??ֶΣ???????Ч?ش????빵ͨ??Ϣ?????ǣ??Ⲣ??????ζ?ţ????ݿ??ӻ???һ????ΪҪʵ???书????;?????˸е????﷦ζ????????Ϊ?˿???ȥѤ????ʶ??Եü??˸??ӡ?Ϊ????Ч?ش???˼??????ѧ??ʽ?빦????Ҫ??ͷ??????ͨ??ֱ?۵ش???ؼ??ķ????????????Ӷ?ʵ?ֶ????൱ϡ????ָ??ӵ????ݼ??????붴?졣Ȼ?????????Ա?????????ܺܺõذ???????빦??֮???ƽ?⣬?Ӷ????????????ʵ?????ݿ??ӻ???ʽ???޷??ﵽ????ҪĿ?ģ?Ҳ???Ǵ????빵ͨ??Ϣ??
???ݿ??ӻ?????Ϣͼ?Ρ???Ϣ???ӻ?????ѧ???ӻ??Լ?ͳ??ͼ????????ء???ǰ?????о?????ѧ?Ϳ??????????ݿ??ӻ?????һ????Ϊ??Ծ???ֹؼ??ķ??档???ݿ??ӻ?????????ʵ???˳???Ŀ?ѧ???ӻ???????????????Ϣ???ӻ??????ͳһ??
???ݿ??ӻ????????????¼??????????
?????ݿռ䣺????nά???Ժ?m??Ԫ????ɵ????ݼ??????ɵĶ?ά??Ϣ?ռ䣻
?????ݿ???????ָ????һ?????㷨?͹??߶????ݽ??ж????????ݺͼ??㣻
?????ݷ?????ָ?Զ?ά???ݽ?????Ƭ???顢??ת?ȶ??????????ݣ??Ӷ??ܶ?Ƕȶ????۲????ݣ?
?????ݿ??ӻ?????ָ?????????ݼ??е???????ͼ??ͼ????ʽ??ʾ???????????ݷ????Ϳ??????߷???????δ֪??Ϣ?Ĵ??????̡?
Ŀǰ???ݿ??ӻ??Ѿ?????????෽??????Щ????????????ӻ???ԭ????ͬ???Ի???Ϊ???ڼ??εļ????????????ؼ?????????ͼ??ļ????????ڲ?εļ?????????ͼ??ļ????ͷֲ?ʽ?????ȵȡ?
NVDIֲ???Ƕ?ֲָ??Ⱥ????????????ĵ??ϲ??ݵĴ?ֱͶӰ????????????֮?ȵİٷ?????????ӳֲ????ï?̶ܳȺ?ֲ????й??????????Ĵ?С????ʱ?Ƕ?Ҳ??Ϊ???ƶȡ?ֲ???Ƕȷ?ͶӰ?Ƕȣ?ȫ??Ƕȣ???ֲ???Ƕ?(?????Ƕ?),?ڼ???вⶨ??ֲ???Ƕ?ΪͶӰ?Ƕ?,ֲ???ǶȲⶨ?в????֣????øǶȿ򷨽??вⶨ??
???ݲɼ?
????1????????Դ?ռ???ʶ???ѡȡ???ݵĹ??̡?
????2?????ֻ???????ɨ??ϵͳ?ļ?¼?????Լ????ݺ????Եı?????̡?
???ݲɼ?(DAQ)????ָ?Ӵ????????????????豸??ģ??????ֱ??ⵥԪ???Զ??ɷǵ??????ߵ????ź?,?͵???λ???н??з???,?????????ݲɼ?ϵͳ?ǽ?ϻ??ڼ????????????ר?ò???ƽ̨?IJ?????Ӳ????Ʒ??ʵ?????ġ??û??Զ???IJ???ϵͳ??
???ݲɼ????ֳ????ݻ?ȡ????????һ??װ?ã???ϵͳ?ⲿ?ɼ????ݲ????뵽ϵͳ?ڲ???һ???ӿڡ????ݲɼ??????㷺?????ڸ??????򡣱???????ͷ????˷磬???????ݲɼ????ߡ?
???ݲɼ?????ָ?Ӵ????????????????豸??ģ??????ֱ??ⵥԪ???Զ??ɼ???Ϣ?Ĺ??̡????ݲɼ?ϵͳ?ǽ?ϻ??ڼ?????IJ?????Ӳ????Ʒ??ʵ?????ġ??û??Զ???IJ???ϵͳ??
ARC/INFO ??ESRI??????????ϵͳ?о???????????һ?????͵ĵ?????Ϣϵͳ??GIS????????????????????????ʽ????????????????ʾ?ռ????ݡ?ARC/INFO????ģ????Coverage??GRID?????Ա???TIN??Ӱ???CADͼ????ʵ?ֿռ???Ϣ?ı???͹?????ʵϰ??Ҫ?˽??????Coverage????ΪCoverage??ARC/INFOʸ?????ݱ?ʾ????Ҫ??ʽ??Coverage?ʺ??ھ?ȷ?ر???㡢?ߡ???״Ҫ?ص???״?ͱ߽磬??Coverage?е??????ݼ??У?????ͨ??????????˹?ϵ????ʾ???????????ݴ??ڱ????¼?У??????????????֮??ͨ??һ???????ڲ???ʶ?????ӡ?ͨ?????????ӣ?????Բ?ѯ??ͼ??ʾ??????Ϣ??Ҳ???Ը??????????Ա??????Ի??Ƶ?ͼ????????ϵģ?Ͱѵ?????Ϣ?????ɼ򵥵ĵ㡢?ߡ????????????Ұ???Щ?㡢?ߡ???????????????Ϣ??֯?ɲ㣬ÿ???Ϊһ??Coverage????ЩCoverageͨ??һ???ڲ?˳???????Ӧ???????????????ӡ???Щ??????????һ????ϵ???ݿ????ϵͳ??INFO???????й?????ά?????Ӷ?ʵ??ͼ?????ݺͿռ????ݵ?˫?????ӺͲ?ѯ??
???ֲ?ֵ?????
??ֵ: ??1??????ɢ???ݵĻ????ϲ?????????????ʹ??????????????ͨ??ȫ??????????ɢ???ݵ㡣??ֵ????ɢ?????ƽ?????Ҫ??????????????ͨ???????????޸??㴦??ȡֵ״????????????????????㴦?Ľ???ֵ????2?????????ͼ??任ʱ????֮??Ŀ?϶??
???:??ν?????ָ??֪ij????????????ɢ????ֵ{f1,f2,…,fn}??ͨ???????ú????????ɴ???ϵ??f(λ1, λ2,…,λn)??ʹ?øú???????֪?㼯?IJ??(??С????????)??С??????????????????ԣ??ͽ???????ϻ??????Իع?(??Ҫ??ͳ????)?????????????????ϻ??߷????Իع顣????ʽҲ?????Ƿֶκ?????????????½?????????ϡ?
һ??۲?????????ͳ??????Ӧ??ֵ????Ǻϡ??????˵,??Ͼ??ǰ?ƽ????һϵ?еĵ?,??һ???⻬??????????????.??Ϊ???????????????ֿ???,?Ӷ??и?????Ϸ???.??ϵ?????һ??????ú?????ʾ.????????????IJ?ͬ?в?ͬ????????֡?
??MATLAB?п?????polyfit ????϶???ʽ??
????α߽?Ͷ????????
????????ģ??????ģ?ͼ?????object modeling technique,OMT????????ͨ?õ???????ģ?ͼ???????ģ?ͼ?????˾?????һ??ϵͳ??????????????????????˼??Ϊ??????ͨ??????????г??󣬹????һ????ص?ģ?ͣ???Щģ??????????ʵ??????????????Լ?????֮??Ĺ?ϵ????ʾ??Ŀ??ϵͳ?ľ?̬???ݽṹ???Ӷ??ܹ?ȫ??ز?׽????ռ????Ϣ??
????ģ?ͼ????ѷ???ʱ?յ?????Ϣ??????????ģ???У???????ģ????ģ?ͼ???????ģ?ͼ????͡?????ģ?ͺͶ?̬ģ?͡?????ģ?ʹӲ?ͬ?ĽǶȶ?ϵͳ???????????ֱ???????ϵͳ??һ?????棬??????????ɶ?ϵͳ?????????????????˵??????ģ?Ͷ?????ʲô??״̬ģ?Ͷ?????ʱ????????ģ?Ͷ?????˭????
??ϵ???ݿ???ϵ???ݿ⣬?ǽ????ڹ?ϵ???ݿ?ģ?ͻ????ϵ????ݿ⣬?????ڼ??ϴ????ȸ???ͷ????????????ݿ??е????ݡ?Ŀǰ?????Ĺ?ϵ???ݿ???oracle??SQL??access??db2??sqlserver??sybase?ȡ?
??ϵ???ݿ⣨relational database????һ??????֯??һ????ʽ?????ı????????????ռ?????Щ?????е????????????಻ͬ?ķ?ʽ????ȡ???????ټ???????Ҫ??????֯???ݿ????
WebGIS ??Internet??WWW????Ӧ????GIS?????IJ????ʵ??GIS????????һ????ѽ??;??????Intemet??????ڵ㣬?û??????????WebGISվ???еĿռ????ݡ?????ר??ͼ?????и??ֿռ???Ϣ?????Ϳռ??????????INTERNET??Ϣ?????????ݹ?????????Э??????֮??ʵ??GIS?????߲?ѯ??ҵ?????ȹ??ܡ?
OpenGIS??????ʽ??????Ϣϵͳ(Open Geodata Interoperation Specification?????ŵĵ??????ݻ??????淶)????ָ?ڼ??????ͨ?Ż????£???????ҵ??׼?ͽӿڣ?Interface)???????????ĵ?????Ϣϵͳ????Ϊ??ʹ??ͬ?ĵ?????Ϣϵͳ????֮????????õĻ??????ԣ??Լ????칹?ֲ????ݿ???ʵ????Ϣ??????;????
Ƕ??ʽGIS??ָ??????Ϣϵͳ??Ƕ??ʽ?豸??PoketPC,PDA?ϵ?Ӧ?ã???ָ????????????Ƕ??ʽ?????ϵͳ?еĵ?????Ϣ?????????͵?Ƕ??ʽGISӦ????Ƕ??ʽӲ??ϵͳ??Ƕ??ʽ????ϵͳ??Ƕ??ʽGIS?????????
GridGIS??????GIS???????????е??????????ռ???Ϣ??????ʩ???ռ???Ϣ????Э??淶???γ?һ??????Ŀռ???Ϣ?????봦???????????ռ?????ֲ??ġ??칹?ĸ????豸??ϵͳ???м??ɣ?Ϊ?û??ṩһ?廯?Ŀռ???ϢӦ?÷???????ܻ???Ϣƽ̨??
???ֵ??????Ƕ???ʵ??????????????ͳһ?Ե????ֻ?????????ʶ??
???˽ṹ??ָ?ֲ?ʽϵͳ?и??????㵥Ԫ֮??????????߼??Ļ?????ϵ?????֮??????˽ṹһֱ??ȷ??ϵͳ???͵???Ҫ???ݡ?
?ռ??????ں???Fusion????ָ???????ݺϳɺ󣬲??ٱ???ԭ???????ݣ?????????һ???µ??ۺ????ݣ???ٲ?ɫ?ϳ?Ӱ??
?ռ????ݽṹ??ָ?ʺ??ڼ????ϵͳ?洢???????ʹ????ĵ?ѧͼ?ε??߼??ṹ???ǵ???ʵ??Ŀռ????з??ij?????????
?ռ?????ģ???ǹ?????ʵ?????пռ?ʵ?弰???໥????ϵ?ĸ??Ϊ?????ռ???????֯????ƿռ????ݿ?ģ???ṩ?˻????ķ?????
?ռ?????????????ָ???ݿռ?????λ?ú???״??ռ????֮???ij?ֿռ??ϵ??һ????˳?????е?һ?????ݽṹ?????а????ռ????ĸ?Ҫ??Ϣ??
?ռ?????????(spatial database engine,SDE) ָ?ṩ?洢????ѯ???????ռ???????ݣ??Լ??Կռ???????ݽ??пռ??ϵ????Ϳռ?????ij????ܼ??ϡ?
?ռ????ݲֿ???ָ֧?ֹ????;??߹??̵ġ?????????ġ????ɵĺ???ʱ??仯?ġ??־õغ;??пռ?????ĵ??????ݵļ??ϡ?Ŀ????Ϊ?˴??????۵ĺ????ռ????ݣ???ȡ??????Ϣ?????ṩ????֧?֡?
??Ϣϵͳ?Ǿ??????ݲɼ??????????????ͱ?????????????ϵͳ?????ܹ?Ϊ??һ?Ļ?????֯?ľ??߹????ṩ???õ???Ϣ??һ?????ڼ????????Ϣϵͳ?????????Ӳ?????????????ݺ??û??Ĵ?Ҫ?ء?
??????Ϣ??ѧ???о?????ϵͳ?е???Ϣ???Ŀ?ѧ????Ҫ?о??ڶԵ?????Ϣ???д??????洢????ȡ?Լ??????ͷ????????????????һϵ?л??????⣬?????ݵĻ?ȡ?ͼ??ɡ??ֲ?ʽ???㡢??????Ϣ????֪?ͱ???ռ????????????Ϣ??????ʩ???衢???????ݵIJ?ȷ???Լ?????ڵ?????Ϣϵͳ??????Ӱ?졢??????Ϣϵͳ?????ʵ???ȣ??о???????Ҫ??????????Ϣ??ȡ?????????а???ң?м?????ȫ??λ??????????????Ϣϵͳ????????????Ϣ???似???ȡ?
???ֵ???ģ??DTM?ǵ??α?????̬??????Ϣ?????ֱ???Ǵ??пռ?λ???????͵??????????????????????????????????????Ŀռ?ֲ?????????ֵ???С?
???ֵ??η????????????ָ߳?ģ?͵ķ?չ?????ֵĵ??η?????????
???ָ߳?ģ??DEM??һ??????£??????????Ǹ߳?Z?????Ŀռ?ֲ???X??Yˮƽ????ϵͳ????????Ҳ???þ???X??γ??Y?????????εķֲ??????ֵ??????ԣ?????????ԣ?Ϊ?̻߳򺣰θ̵߳?DTM??Ϊ???ָ߳?ģ?͡?
????任?ǻ??ڷ???????ϵ????????һ??????任??ѧģ?͡??Ǿ???ԭ??ƽ?ƣ??ֱ???????????????????ת???????????????Ϸֱ???г߶ȱ任ʵ?ֵģ?????ѧģ??ΪX??a1x+a2y+a0??Y??b1y+b2x+b0??X??YΪ????ͼ???꣬x??yΪ???ֻ??????꣬ai??bi(i=0,1,2)Ϊ?任??????
?ռ?????????????????ǶԵ????ռ????ݰ?һ?????????ת????ͼ??????????һ???Ŀռ?????㷨????һ??????????ƽ????Ϊ???룬???????????????µ?????ƽ?档????ר?????ģ??Ҫ???????ɿռ??????????ԭʼ???ݽ??б任???Ի?ȡ????ķ???ģ??Ҫ????ʽ?ĵ????ռ???Ϣ???ռ???????????????????û??ṩ??????ʽ?Ŀռ???Ϣ??????Ϊ??????Ϣϵͳ????ģ?͵?ʵ???ṩ?˼???ķ??㡣
??????ʵ??VR,Virtual Reality????ָ???ü??????һϵ?д??и?????ʩ??ʵ?ֵ?ʹ??????????????????ʵ?????еĸо??Ļ???????һ????????ʵ??ģ?⻷????
??????????????Զ???Ϊ??????Ϊ????Ļ???????????Լ?Χ?Ƹ???????ڵ?һ?п͹ۻ???????????????????硢????????Ӳ?????????????????????ݻ?????????ͼ?ξ??񻷾??????⾭?û????Լ???????ᡢ???κ??Ļ???????????????Ȼ????????ỷ????????ģ?ͣ?????ǿ????????Ϣʹ?????????侳֮???ܵ?ͬʱ????׷??Խ??ʵ?????⡣
?IJ?????????????Ԫ?????룬????ͨ??????Ϊһ???????ķ?֦?ṹ????????????դ?????ݶ?ά?ռ?ֲ?????????????һ?ָ?Ϊ??Ч?ı??뷽?????IJ??????뽫????ͼ?????????ĸ????޵ݹ?ָ??2n×2n??Ԫ???У??γɹ????ǣ???һ??2×2ͼ??ֽ?ɴ?С??ȵ??IJ??֣?ÿһ?????ַֽ?ɴ?С??ȵ??IJ??֣???????һֱ?ֽ???ȥ??һֱ?ֽ⵽?????εĴ?С????????Ԫ?Ĵ?С???Ϊֹ?????𲽷ֽ?Ϊ??????һ???͵ķ??????򣨾?ֵ?飩????С?ķ???????Ϊһ??դ??Ԫ??
?IJ??????ݽṹ???????ݽṹ??ԭ?????Ա???Ϊ?????ռ????????ĸ????޽??еݹ?ָ2n×2n????n≥1????ֱ???????޵???ֵ????Ϊֹ??????ֵ??????????????룩?ʵ????ĵ?Ԫ?????۵?Ԫ??С??????Ϊ???Ĵ洢??Ԫ??
??????????????Delaunay????̩ɭ????εĹ????У?????Ҫ????ɢ?㹹??????????????????????ΪDelaunay????????????Ϊ???й????ߵ?Voronoi????Σ????V-????Σ???Ϊ???ڵ?V-????Ρ????????????ڵ?V-????ε????????????γɵ?????????ΪDelaunay????????
LBS λ?÷?????LBS??Location Based Services???ֳƶ?λ??????ָͨ???ƶ??ն˺??ƶ????????ϣ?ȷ???ƶ??û???ʵ?ʵ???λ?ã??Ӷ??ṩ?û?????Ҫ????λ????صķ?????Ϣ?????????û?λ????Ϣ??????ֵ?????һ???ƶ?ͨ???뵼???ںϵķ?????ʽ??
GPS ȫ??λϵͳ??Global Positioning System???????????????ǽ??е?λ??????????????һ?֣?????????????֯???ƽ???????1973?꿪ʼʵʩ????90???????ɡ?
XML??????չ??ʶ???ԣ???ͨ?ñ?ʶ???Ա?׼??SGML)??һ???Ӽ????????????????ϵ????????ݺͽṹ?ı?׼??
OGC??OpenGISЭ?ᣬOpenGIS Consortium)??һ????Ӯ??????֯??Ŀ???Ǵٽ??????µļ???????ҵ??ʽ????ߵ?????Ϣ?Ļ?????(Interoperablity)??OGC??Ա??Ҫ????GIS??صļ????Ӳ?????????????̣????????????Լ?һЩ?ߵ?ԺУ?????????ŵȣ??似??ίԱ?Ḻ??????׼???ƶ???????
SIG ?ռ???Ϣդ????spatial information grid,SIG????һ?ֻ㼯?͹????????Ϸֲ??ĺ????ռ???Ϣ??Դ?????????һ?廯??֯??Эͬ???????Ӷ????а???????????Ŀռ???Ϣ??????ʩ??
????Ӱ????ָ??????ͶӰ????Ƭ??????????????????һ???̶??????????????????????ͶӰ???ʹ??????????????????λ?Ƶ?Ӱ??
Ӱ???ͼphoto map ?Ժ??պͺ???ң??Ӱ??Ϊ???????????ξ???????????߻???????ע?ǣ?????ͼ?????ۺϱ?ʾ??ͼ???ϵĵ?ͼ??
Բ??ͶӰcylindrical projection ??Բ????Ϊ??Ӱ???һ??ͶӰ????????Բ???????ŵ????????????????(??)??????γ??ͶӰ??Բ?????ϣ??ٽ?Բ????չ??Ϊƽ????ɡ?
Բ׶ͶӰconic projection ??Բ׶??Ϊ??Ӱ???һ??ͶӰ????????Բ׶?????ŵ??????????????(??)??????γ??ͶӰ??Բ׶???ϣ??ٽ?Բ׶??չ??Ϊƽ????ɡ?
դ??ṹraster structure ??դ?????Ϊ?????ĵ????ռ????ݵ???֯??ʽ??
դ??????Raster Data ????????Ԫ???к??????еġ????в?ͬ?Ҷ?ֵ????ɫ?????????ݡ?դ?????ݵ?ÿ??Ԫ?ؿ????к???Ψһ?ر?ʶ?????к??е???Ŀ??ȡ????դ??ķֱ??ʣ????С????ʵ??????ԡ?
????Ӱ???ͼorthophoto map ???еȸ??ߵ?????Ӱ??ͼ??
????Ӱ??ͼortho-photo map????????Ƭ???ƵĴ??й????????ͼ?????????κ?ע?ǵ?ƽ??ͼ??
ֱ????????rectangular grid??ƽ??ֱ?????껮?ֵ??????????ͬ??ʣ???????
??ͼר??ϵͳcartographic expert system ???ü?????˹????ܼ?????ģ???ͼ??ͼר?ҵ?֪ʶ?;?????е?ͼ??????????ϵͳ??
????Attributeһ??Ŀ???ʵ???????????????????
???Ծ???attribute accuracy ָ????ȡ??????ֵ(????ֵ)??????ʵֵ?ķ??ϳ̶ȡ?
ר???ͼthematic map ???ر?ʾ??Ȼ??????????е?ijһ?ֻ???Ҫ?أ??????б???ij?????????ݵĵ?ͼ??
??Ȼ??ͼ??Physical map ??ӳ??Ȼ??????Ҫ?ػ?????Ŀռ?ֲ????ɡ???????켰???໥??ϵ?ĵ?ͼ??
????任Coordinate Transfer ????һ??????ѧ??????һ??????ϵ??????任Ϊ??һ??????ϵ??????Ĺ??̡?
???????coordinate grid??һ???ݺ??????࣬?ڵ?ͼ?ϻ??ֵĸ?????
?ؼ?ͼcadastral map ???????ؼ??丽?????λ?á?Ȩ???????????????ĵ?ͼ??
ʲô??GIS
GIS??geographic information system????????????Ϣϵͳ?????????ִ??????ͼ?μ????????ݿ⼼???????롢?洢???༭??????????ʾ?ռ???Ϣ??????????Ϣ?ĵ???????ϵͳ???ڵ?????Ϣϵͳ?д???ʹ????????ݿ??Էֳ??????ࣺ??һ???Ƿ?ӳ????????ռ?λ?õ???Ϣ?ƿռ???Ϣ??ռ?????(Ҳ?Ƶ?ͼ???ݣ?ͼ??????)???ڶ??????????λ???йصķ?ӳ????????????????Ϣ??????????Ϣ??????????(Ҳ?ɳ?Ϊ???????ݣ???ͼ??????)??ͨ??GISϵͳ????????Ϣ?????й?????ʽ????????֮?佨??˫???Ӧ??ϵ??ʵ??ͼ?κ????ݵĻ??黥?á?
GIS?б?DBMS??MIS????ͼ???ݿ⡢CADϵͳ??
GIS??CAD?кܴ?????????ȣ?GIS??ͼ?κ????ԵĽ???壬??CAD?ǵ?????ͼ?Σ????Ѻʹ???????????????Ϣ????????Σ?GIS?е?ͼ??????????Ϣ?????Խ??и??ָ??ӵĿռ????????CADͼ??Ҫ??֮??Ĺ?ϵ????ɢ?ģ?û?пռ?ĸ???ٴΣ?GIS?????????ֻ???ͼ?λ????ԵIJ?ѯͳ?ƣ?Ҳ?????????ֱ?????ʽ??ר??ͼ????CADһ?㲻?ܣ????GIS???????????????????Ǹߴ???ʮG?ĺ??????ݣ?Ҳ?ܶ?д?洢?????ݿ??еĿռ?ͼ?Σ???CAD???ܡ?
GIS????ʵ???????޴?????
???ǵ????????????????Ҫ????ս?ǣ??˿ڹ??࣬??????Ⱦ??ɭ???ƻ?????Ȼ?????ȡ???Щ????????????йء??????Ǵ???һ???µ?ְҵ??????Ѱ???????㽶??????ʵ?????????Ϊ?Ȼ?????????ѵ??г?·?ߣ???Щ????????Ҳ???е??????ء???ͼ?????͵????????Ѳ????????£???GISִ????Щ????ȴ?ͳ???ֹ????????ø??졣???ң???GIS????????֮ǰ??ֻ?к??ٵ??˾??????õ?????Ϣ???????????????ͽ????????????????죬GIS????һ??ȫ??ӵ????ʮ?????Ա????ʮ????Ԫ?IJ?ҵ??GIS????ȫ???????ѧ??ѧԺ????ѧ?ﱻ???ڡ???ÿ?????????ר?Ҳ??ϵ???ʶ?????????Ĺ۵???˼???͹?????????????Խ?ԡ?
GIS?????
GIS ???????Ҫ??Ԫ???????ɣ?Ӳ?????????????ݡ???Ա?ͷ?????Ӳ??:Ӳ????GIS ???????ļ?????????죬GIS?????????ںܶ????͵?Ӳ???????С??????????????????????????????ӵ????????绷????????:GIS?????ṩ????Ĵ洢??????????ʾ??????Ϣ?Ĺ??ܺ͹??ߡ???Ҫ???????????У?????ʹ?????????Ϣ?Ĺ??ߡ????ݿ????ϵͳ(DBMS)??֧?ֵ?????ѯ?????????Ӿ????Ĺ??ߡ?????ʹ????Щ???ߵ?ͼ?λ?????(GUI)
??1?????ݣ?
һ??GISϵͳ??????Ҫ?IJ????????????ˡ????????ݺ???صı??????ݿ????Լ??ɼ????ߴ???ҵ?????ṩ?ߴ?????GIS???ѿռ????ݺ?????????Դ?????ݼ?????һ?𣬶??ҿ???ʹ????Щ?????????˾??????֯?ͱ??????ݵ????ݿ????ϵͳ?????????ռ????ݡ?
??2????Ա??
GIS???????û??????????ϵͳ???ƶ??ƻ?Ӧ????ʵ?????⣬??û??ʲô??ֵ??GIS???û???Χ????????ƺ?ά??ϵͳ?ļ???ר?ң?????Щʹ?ø?ϵͳ?????????ÿ?칤??????Ա??
??3????????
?ɹ???GISϵͳ?????кõ???Ƽƻ????Լ?????????ɣ???Щ?ǹ淶???Ҷ?ÿһ????˾??˵????IJ???ʵ?????Ƕ??صġ?
GIS??ι???
GIS ?????????洢?й????????Ϣ????Щ??Ϣ?ǿ???ͨ????????ϵ??????һ???????????㼯?ϡ??????ȴ?dz???????ͨ?õĸ?????ڽ????????ʵ?????????????޼۵????ã???Щ????????????ٴ??乤?ߡ???¼?ƻ?????ϸ???ϣ?ģ??ȫ??Ĵ???ѭ???ȡ?
?????ο?ϵͳ
??????Ϣ????????ȷ?ĵ???????ϵͳ?????羭?Ⱥ?γ?????꣬?????ǹ??????????ꡣҲ???԰?????ӵĵ???????ϵͳ???????ַ?????????롢?˿??ղ???????ɭ??λ??ʶ??·???ȡ?һ?ֽ?????????????Զ?????ϵͳ?????Ӽ?ӵIJ???ϵͳ?????ַ??????ת?????ȷ?ĵ???????ϵͳ??????ض?λ????Щ?????ο?ϵͳ????ʹ?㶨λһЩ????????????ҵ???ɭ??λ?ã?Ҳ???Զ?λһЩ?¼?????????????????ر???????
ʸ????դ??ģʽ
??????Ϣϵͳ?????????ֲ?ͬ?Ļ???????ģʽ??ʸ??ģʽ??դ??ģʽ????ʸ??ģʽ??,???ڵ㡢?ߺͶ???ε???Ϣ?????벢??x??y ??????ʽ???档һ?????????Ķ?λ??????һ????ף????Ա?һ????һ??x??y ???????????????????????繫·?ͺ????????Ա??洢??һϵ?еĵ????ꡣ??????????????????۵????????ۼ????????Ա??洢??һ???պ?ѭ????????ϵ??ʸ??ģʽ?dz???????????һЩ??ɢ???????????????仯???????????????????ͻ????ҽԺ?Ŀ????ȣ??Ͳ?̫???á?դ??ģʽ??չΪ??????????ģʽ??դ??ͼ???????????Ԫ???е???ɨ??ĵ?ͼ????Ƭ????????ʸ??ģʽ????դ??ģʽ???????洢???????ݣ??????ŵ??ȱ?ݡ??ִ???GIS?????Դ?????????ģʽ??
GIS??ؼ???
GIS????????????Ϣϵͳ??????أ????????䴦???ͷ??????????ݵ?????ʹ?????????????𡣾???û??ʲôӲ?ԵĺͿ??ٵĹ?????????Щ??Ϣϵͳ???࣬??????????ۿ??԰???????GIS????????ͼ??????????????CAD??ң?С?DBMS???Լ?GPS??????
??1????????ͼ
??????ͼϵͳ?õ?ͼ????֯???ݺ??û???????????ϵͳ????ҪĿ???Dz?????ͼ????ͼ???????ݿ⡣???????????ͼϵͳֻ?м??????޵????ݹ??????ռ?????Լ????Ի?????????????ͼϵͳ???????????Ͻ??в?????????PC????Macintosh?Լ?С??UNIX????վ??
??2??????????????CAD
????????????(CAD)ϵͳ?ٽ??˲?????????ͻ??????????ƺ͹滮???????????Ҫװ?????????????????????????ṹ????Щϵͳ??ҪһЩ??????ָ?????װ????Щ???????????зdz????޵ķ?????????CADϵͳ?Ѿ???չ????֧?ֵ?ͼ??ƣ????????ͷ??????͵ĵ??????ݿ?Ĺ??ߺ????ޡ?
??3??ң?к?GPS
ң????һ??ʹ?ô??????Ե?????в????Ŀ?ѧ?ͼ????????磬?ɻ??ϵ????????ȫ??λϵͳ??GPS?????????????????豸????Щ????????ͼ??ĸ?ʽ?ռ????ݣ???Ϊ???á??????Ϳ??ӻ???Щͼ???ṩר?ŵĹ??ܡ???????ȱ??ǿ??ĵ??????ݹ????ͷ??????ã????Բ??ܽ?????????GIS??
??4??DBMS???ݿ????ϵͳ
???ݿ????ϵͳר???о???δ洢?͹??????????͵????ݣ????а??????????ݡ?DBMSʹ?洢?Ͳ??????????Ż???????GISΪ?˶??????????????GIS???ԣ?????û?з????Ϳ??ӻ??Ĺ??ߡ?
GIS??????ʲô
???е?????Ϣ??ѯ?ͷ???
GIS???????ݿⲢ???е?????Ϣ??ѯ??????????Լ?????๫˾???԰???Ƶ???Ԫ??GIS???ԣ????̻ش?ͻ??????ʱ?䡢?ҵ??ʺ??ڿ????????ء?????ʳ????????????֮????Ѱ??ع?ϵ????????·???϶?λ??
???ز??????˿?????GIS??һ??????????Ѱ???????????????????з??ݣ??߸ǵ??ݶ?????????䣬?????г????ǵ??????ص㡣
??ѯ????ͨ??????׼??????һ??ϸ???????۱???ÿƽ??Ӣ??????100??Ԫ?????????г???Щ??????ѧУ??һ???ľ???֮?ڡ?
?????õľ???һ?????ϵĸ????õ???Ϣ???ºõľ?????????GIS????????Ϣϵͳ??˵??????ȷ?ġ?Ȼ????һ????????Ϣϵͳ??GIS??????????һ???Զ?????ϵͳ??????һ????ѯ????????֧?????????ߴ?????ͼ?????ݹ??ߡ?GIS?????Ѿ??????ڰ??????һЩ???????磺Ϊ?ƻ??????ṩ??Ϣ????????????????ˣ?????С???Ӿ?????Ϊԭ??????·?ꡣGIS???????ڰ???һ???·?ַ??ѡ??????ʹ???ܻ???Ӱ????С???ڵͷ??????????˿ھۼ??ؽ????????Ե?ͼ?͸??ӱ???ķ?ʽ???????????ṩ?????Ϣ??ʹ?????߼??о?????ʵ?ʵ????⣬?????ǻ?ʱ??ȥ???????ݡ?????GIS????ܹ??ܿ?ػ?ã????????Ľ?????Ա???Ч?????ۡ???ͼͼ????GIS??ռ????Ҫ??һϯ֮?ء?GIS????ͼ?????ȴ?ͳ???˹????Զ???ͼ????Ҫ???öࡣ????ʼ?????ݿ?Ĵ??????Ѿ????ڵ?ֽ??ͼ?????Խ??????ֻ????????԰Ѽ???????ݵ???Ϣת????GIS?С???GISΪ??????ͼ?????ݿ??ǿ????????ģ???????Ҳ???????ơ?ͼ?????????κεص?Ϊ???ģ????????⣬ʹ??ͻ??Ч?????????ַ???Ч????ʾ??ѡ?????Ϣ????ͼ???͵?ͼ??????????????ü??????????룬???????յ????ݿ??Ʒ??Ƚϡ???????GIS??ʹ?õ????ֻ???Ʒ?????????????ݿ?ļ򵥿???????һ???????֯?????У????????ݿ???Ա??????????????ο????ܡ?
??ͼͶӰ??ͼͶӰ????ָ????????????ϵĵ???ͶӰƽ???ϵ?֮???Ӧ??ϵ????ѧ??????????????????????ϵ?????Ƶ?ƽ??ͼֽ?ϵ????⡣
?ռ?????ǻ??ڿռ?????λ?ú???̬?????Ŀռ????ݷ????????????????????˵??ӷ?????????????????????????͵??η????ȡ?
1954 ?걱??????ϵBeijing Geodetic Coordinate System 1954 1954???ҹ????????õĹ??Ҵ??????ϵ??ʵ????????ԭ?????ն?????Ϊԭ??1942??????ϵ?????졣
1956 ??ƺ??߳?ϵͳHuang hai Vertical Datum 1956 ???ൺ?鳱վ????1950????1956????鳱???ϼ???ȷ????ƽ????????Ϊ??׼?棬???Լ???????̵߳?ϵͳ??
1985 ???Ҹ̻߳?׼National Vertical Datum 1985 1987??䲼?????ģ????ൺ?鳱վ1952????1979???鳱???ϼ???ȷ????ƽ????????Ϊ??׼??ĸ̻߳?׼??
ISO/OSI ?ο?ģ??OSI-RM ISO/OSI Reference Model??ģ???ǹ??ʱ?׼????֯??ISO??Ϊ????ͨ???ƶ???Э?飬????????ͨ?ŵĹ???Ҫ??????ͨ?Ź??̷?Ϊ?߲㣬?ֱ?Ϊ?????㡢??????·?㡢????㡢????㡢?Ự?㡢??ʾ???Ӧ?ò㣬ÿ?㶼?涨????ɵĹ??ܼ???Ӧ??Э?顣
WGS -84 ????ϵWGS -84 Coordinate Systemһ?ֹ????ϲ??õĵ???????ϵ??????ԭ??Ϊ???????ģ?????Ŀռ?ֱ??????ϵ??֮??ָ??BIH??????ʱ?䣩1984??0?????Э????򼫣?CTP?????򣬵???ָ??BIH 1984??0???????????CTP????Ľ??㣬Y????Z?ᡢX?ᴹֱ????????????ϵ????Ϊ1984????????????ϵͳ??
?ο?????reference ellipsoid һ?????һ????Ϊ?????????ɹ??????õ?һ????????С????״??ӽ???????һ???????ĵ???????
???е?????ϢUrban Geographic lnformation ???е?????Ϣ?dz?????һ????????ֲ??йصĸ??ֵ???Ҫ??ͼ????Ϣ????????Ϣ?????໥??ռ??ϵ??Ϣ???ܳơ?
???е?????ϢϵͳUrban Geographic lnformation System???“UGIS”?????ǵ?????Ϣϵͳ??һ????֧????һ?????ü????Ӳ???????????缼????ʵ?ֶԳ??и??ֿռ?ͷǿռ????ݵ????롢????????ѯ??????????????????????ʾ?????º??ṩӦ?ã??Դ??????и??ֿռ?ʵ?弰???ϵΪ???ļ???ϵͳ?????dz??л?????ʩ֮һ??Ҳ??һ?ֳ????ִ??????????滮?Ϳ?ѧ???ߵ??Ƚ????ߡ?
???л?????????ϢUrban FundamentaI Geographic lnformation ???л?????????Ϣ??ָ??????????ĵ?????Ϣ??????????ƽ??͸߳̿??Ƶ㡢???????·??ˮϵ?????硢???Ρ?ֲ??????????ijЩ??????Ϣ?ȣ????ڱ?ʾ???л?????ò????Ϊ????ר????Ϣ?ռ䶨λ?????塣??????ͳһ?ԡ???ȷ?Ժͻ????Ե??ص㡣
??ز???geodetic survey ?ⶨ??????״????С????????????仯?ͽ???????????ȫ?????ά???????ļ?????
??ػ?׼geodetic datum???????ϵ?Ļ??????????ݣ??????ο?????????Ͷ?λ?????Լ????????????????ݡ?
???ˮ׼??geoid һ????????봦?????徲ƽ??״̬?ĺ?????(?޲??ˡ???ϫ???????ʹ???ѹ?仯??????Ŷ?)?غϲ????????½?Ұ?Χ???????????????λ?档
???ԭ??geodetic origin ????ˮƽ????????????㡣ͬ??ʣ???ػ?׼??
???????Geodetic Coordinate??ز??????Բο???????Ϊ??׼??????ꡣ?????P??λ???ô?ؾ???L?????γ??B?ʹ?ظ?H??ʾ???????ڲο?????????ʱ?????ô?ؾ??Ⱥʹ??γ?ȱ?ʾ????ؾ?????ͨ???õ?Ĵ????????????ʼ?????????֮??ļнǣ????γ????ͨ???õ?ķ?????????ļнǣ???ظ??ǵ?????ط??ߵ??ο???????ľ??롣
???????ϵgeodetic coordinate system ?Բο???????Ϊ??׼?棬???Ա?ʾ?????λ?õIJο?ϵ??
?ȸ߾?contour interval ??ͼ?????ڵȸ??ߵĸ̲߳
?ȸ???contour ??ͼ?ϵ???߳???ȵ????ڵ??????ɵ???????ƽ???ϵ?ͶӰ??
?Ƚ?ͶӰconformal projection ??һ????Χ?ڣ?ͶӰ?????κε???????΢???߶???ɵĽǶ?ͶӰǰ?󱣳ֲ????һ??ͶӰ??ͬ??ʣ?????ͶӰ??????ͶӰ
?Ⱦ???ͶӰequidistant projection ?ؾ?Ȧ??ֱȦ????ľ??룬ͶӰǰ?󱣳ֲ????һ??????ͶӰ??
?????ͶӰequivalent projection??ͼ???κ?ͼ??????????????߷Ŵ????ʵ????Ӧ??ͼ????????ִ?С?????ͶӰ??
?ط?????ϵlocal coordinate system ?ֲ?????????ƽ???????ʱ????????ҪͶӰ??????ѡ?????Ϻ?(??)???õط???????Ϊ?????????ߵ?һ??ֱ??????ϵ??
?ؼ???Ϣϵͳcadastral information system ?ڼ??????Ӳ??֧???£??Ѹ??ֵؼ???Ϣ???տռ?ֲ??????ԣ???һ???ĸ?ʽ???롢?????????????ռ??????????ļ????????ϵͳ??
????????Geographic Grid ?ǰ?һ??????ѧ????Ե????????л????γɵĸ?????ͨ????ָ??һ?????Ȼ?γ?ȼ????ʾ?ĸ?????
????????geographic dataֱ?ӻ??ӹ?????????ڵ????ij???ص?????ݡ?
???????ݿ?geographical database ???ü?????洢????Ȼ?????????ĵ?????Ҫ?ص??????ļ????????ݹ????????ļ??ϡ?
??????Ϣgeographic information ??????Щֱ?ӻ????漰????ڵ???ij????????????Ϣ??
??????Ϣ????geographic information serviceΪ?û?ת?????????????ṩ??????Ϣ?ķ???
????????Geograptlic Coordinate ?þ??ȣ?λ??γ?ȣ?j??????ʾ?ĵ????λ?õ????????ꡣ???????????뱾????????֮??ļн?Ϊ?õ?ľ??ȣ??ɱ???????????Ϊ??????????Ϊ??????????????18??????ڲο?????ķ??????????ƽ??Ľ???Ϊ?õ??γ?ȡ????????Ϊ??γ??????Ϊ??γ???ϡ?????90????
??????????geographic graticule??????γ?Ȼ??ֵ??????????
??ͼmap??һ??????ѧ????ʹ?÷???ϵͳ??????ע?ǣ???ͼ??ġ????ֵĻ򴥾?????ʽ??ʾ??Ȼ?????????ĵ???????Ҫ???????塣
??ͼ??????map scale??ͼ??ijһ?߶εij????????????Ӧ?߶?ˮƽ????֮?ȡ?
??ͼ????map symbols??ͼ?ϸ???ͼ?Ρ??Ǻź????ֵ??ܳơ???ͼ????????״???ߴ硢ɫ?ʡ???λ?㡢???ֵ????ع??ɡ?
??ͼ???ſ?map symbol base???ü?????洢??ʾ??ͼ?ĸ??ַ??ŵ???????Ϣ?????뼰????????ļ??ϡ?
??ͼ??atlas ????ͳһ?????ԭ??ͱ?????????Э???ĵ?ͼ???ݡ??涨?ı????ߡ??ַ?ϵͳ??װ֡??ʽ?Ķ????ͼ?Ļ㼯??
??ͼ???ݽṹmap data structureָ???ɵ?ͼ??????Ҫ?ص????ݼ?֮???໥??ϵ?????ݼ?¼?ı?????֯??ʽ??
??ͼ???ݿ?cartographic database?洢?ڼ?????еĵ?ͼ???ݸ?Ҫ??(????Ƶ㡢??ò??????ء?ˮ?ġ?ֲ??????ͨ???䡢?????)????????Ϣ?ļ??????ݿ????ϵͳ????????????Ӳ???ļ??ϡ?
??ͼ???ݿ????ϵͳmap database management system??????ά????ʹ?õ?ͼ???ݿ??һ????????
????ͼtopographic map??ϸ??ʾ?ر??Ͼ???ء???·??ˮϵ?????硢???ʡ?ֲ???Ȼ???????Ҫ?????õȸ??߱?ʾ?????????һ?ְ?ͳһ?淶????????ͨ??ͼ??
????ͼgeological map??ʾ?ؿDZ??????ࡢ???ԡ??ز?????????ʹ??졢?ҽ????????ֲ??ȵĵ?ͼ???ܳơ?
????overlayʹԤ?????ɲ??洢??ͼ?Ρ??????????ȱ????ò???????һ??????ͼ???ϵĹ??̻򷽷???
???÷???over1ay analysis????ͬ??ĵ???Ҫ?????ص???ʹ??һЩҪ?ػ?????????ӣ??Ӷ???ȡ????Ϣ?ķ??????????ϳɵ??÷?????ͳ?Ƶ??÷?????ͬ??ʣ???ͼ???Ƿ???
??̬?ؾ?ģ??dynamic simulation of landscape ???ü???????????ɵ???άͼ????ʹ????(??????)?ӵ???ƶ?????Ӧ?ı?ͼ??????????ģ??ʵ?ع۲?ij?????
????????ϵindependent coordinate system????ѡ??ԭ??????????ֱ??????ϵ??
????νṹpolygon structure ?Ե㡢?ߡ????ͼ??Ԫ??Ϊ?????Ŀռ????ݵ???֯??ʽ??
?ನ??ң??multispectral remote sensing ?????巴??????ĵ?Ų???Ϣ?ֳ????ɲ??׶ν??н??պͼ?¼??ң?С?
????׺ϳ?ͼ??multi-spectral composite imagery??ͬһ?????????Ӱ?????Ժ졢?̡????˹?Ƭ?ص?ͶӰ???γɵ?ͼ??
??ý??????Multimedia Network
Ϊ??ý??ͨ???ṩһ?????紫?价???????ݰ????????????????Ϣ??????ʽ???߲?Э??ȣ????????ʽΪ?绰????????????
??ʱ??ͼ??multi-temporal image ָ??ͬʱ???ȡ??ͬһ??????ͼ??
??ֵͼ??binary imageÿһ??Ԫֻ?????ֿ??ܵ???ֵ??Ҷȵȼ?״̬??ͼ??
??????Classification Code ??????Ϣ???????Ľ????????һ????һ?????֡??ַ??????????ַ???ϱ?Dz?ͬ?????Ϣ?Ĵ??롣???????????߷??෨???γɴ?????????ϵ????νṹ??
????service  ?д??ڷ???ӿ?һ?ߵ??˻??Զ???ϵͳ????һ?ߵ??˻??????Զ???ϵͳ?ṩ?????ܻ??ܵIJ?ͬ???֡?
????ӿ?service interfaceһ???Զ???ϵͳ????һ???Զ???ϵͳ????֮??Ĺ????߽硣
????ֱ???radiation resolutionָң?????в?(????)Ԫ???ڽ??ղ??׷????ź?ʱ?ֱܷ????С????Ȳ??ָ????????ͬ?ķ???Դ?ķ??????ķֱ???????
????У??radiometric correction????????????أ????ݻ?ȡ?ʹ???ϵͳ??????ϵͳ?ġ?????ķ???ʧ????????е?У????
?߳?elevation????????̻߳?׼??Ĵ?ֱ???롣
?߳?elevation ?ص???????ڲο???֮?ĸ߶?֮??
?̻߳?׼vertical datum ???ض??鳱վƽ??????ȷ???IJ????̵߳????????Լ????ݸ?????ȷ????ˮ׼ԭ??̡߳?
?߳?ϵElevation System?ɸ̻߳?׼??????ĵ????ĸ߶ȳ?Ϊ?̡߳?һ??أ?һ??????ֻ????һ??ƽ????ˮ????Ϊͳһ?ĸ̻߳?׼?棬?ɴ˸̻߳?׼?潨???ĸ߳?ϵͳ??Ϊ???Ҹ߳?ϵ???????Ϊ?ط??߳?ϵ??1985??ǰ???ҹ?????“1956??ƺ??߳?ϵ????1950??1956???ൺ?鳱վ?ⶨ??ƽ????ˮ????Ϊ?̻߳?׼?棩??1985?꿪ʼ????“1985???Ҹ̻߳?׼????1952??1979???ൺ?鳱վ?ⶨ??ƽ????ˮ????Ϊ?̻߳?׼?棩??
???????ֻ?tracing digitizing ??ͼ???ֻ?????֮һ???????ַ????????ֻ??ǣ?????ͼͼ??ת????ʸ?????ݵķ????????ֻ?ʱ???ű?ʾ?????ƶ???˳??ʵʱ??¼??ǰ???ƽ??????ֵ??
???ʱ?׼International Standard?ɹ??ʱ?׼????????ʽͨ???ı?׼??????ijЩ??????ɹ??ʱ?׼????????ʽͨ???ļ????涨??ͨ????????????????ı?׼????1?????ʱ?׼????֯??ISO???͹??ʵ繤ίԱ?ᣨIEC?????ƶ??ı?׼????2?????ʱ?׼????֯?Ͽɵ?????22????????֯???ƶ??ı?׼??
???һ???ͼnational basic map ???ݹ??Ҿ????????ȷ????һ??(????)?????ߵľ???ͨ???ԡ??????յĵ?ͼ??
??ͼchart?Ժ???Ϊ??Ҫ??????ĵ?ͼ??
????ң??aerial remote sensing??airborne remote sensing ?Կ??еķɻ???ֱ????????ͧ??????Ⱥ??շ?????Ϊƽ̨??ң?С?
????ң??space remote sensing??space borne remote sensing?ڵ?????????????????ռ䣬?????????ǡ?????ɴ???????ɻ???????Ⱥ????????Ϊƽ̨??ң?С?ͬ??ʣ?̫??ң??
????ң??infrared remote sensingң???????????????ں??Ⲩ?η?Χ֮?ڵ?ң?С?
??????Դ??Ϣϵͳenvironmental resources information system ?ڼ??????Ӳ??֧???£?????Դ??????Ϣ???տռ?ֲ??????ԣ???һ???ĸ?ʽ???롢?????????????ռ??????????ļ????????ϵͳ??
????????integrated data??ʸ?????ݡ?դ?????ݶ???Ϊһ??Ļ???????ݡ?ͬ??ʣ??ۺ????ݡ?
??????׼geometric registration ????ͬʱ?䡢??ͬ???Ρ???ͬң????ϵͳ????õ?ͬһ??????ͼ??(????)???????α任ʹͬ???????λ???Ϻͷ?λ????ȫ???ϵIJ?????
???????ͼ??ͼcomputer cartography ???ݵ?ͼ??ͼѧԭ???͵?ͼ?༭?ƻ???Ҫ???Լ??????????Χ?豸??Ϊ??Ҫ????ͼ???ߣ?Ӧ?????ݿ⼼????ͼ?ε????ִ?????????ʵ?ֵ?ͼ??Ϣ?Ļ?ȡ??ת???????䡢ʶ?𡢴洢??????????ʾ??????????ͼͼ?εĹ??̺ͷ?????ͬ??ʣ??Զ???ͼ?????ֵ?ͼ??ͼ
?????㷨Encryption Algorithm??????Ϊ?????ĵ????ĵ?һ?ֱ任??????Ϊ????????㷨???ֳƶԳƼ????㷨???͹?????Կ?????㷨???ֳƷǶԳƼ????㷨????
?ල????supervised classification??????֪ѵ?????ṩ????????ͨ??ѡ?????????????????б????ԶԸ???????Ӱ????е?ͼ?????
????clipping?Դ???Ϊ???ȥ??????ʾ???߽??ͼ?β??ֵĹ??̻??ܡ?
??????ͼ??nearing fared image??ң????????Ŀ???ﷴ????????????׶????γɵ?ͼ??
????Accuracy ?۲?????????ֵ?????ֵ????ֵ??????Ϊ????ֵ??֮??Ľӽ??̶ȡ?
?ɼ???ң??visible spectral remote sensingң???????????????ڿɼ??Ⲩ?η?Χ֮?ڵ?ң?С?
???ӻ?visualization ?ڼ??????̬????????ͼ?μ??????ͼѧ???????ϵĻ????ϣ?Ϊ??Ӧ?Ӿ???????˼ά?????еĿռ????ݴ?????????????ʾ?Ĺ??̡?
?ͻ???/???????ṹClient/Server Structure????һ?ֲַ?ʽ???????ϵ?ṹ????????????봦?????ͷ????????????????նˣ??????ݺͳ?????ڷ??????ϣ?????ҵ??ר?Ż???ÿ̨???????ר??????һ?ֹ??ܣ??ɰ?Ӧ?÷?Ϊǰ????̨???ڼ?????ϣ?????????ֻ?????????Ӧ?𣬶????Ǵ????ij???????ݣ?????Ҳ??????????ͨ??????
?ռ????ϵͳSpatiaI Reference Systemȷ??????Ŀ??ƽ??λ?ú͸̵߳?ƽ??????ϵ?͸߳?ϵ??ͳ?ơ?ƽ??????ϵ??Ϊ????????ϵ?Ͷ???????ϵ???߳?ϵ??Ϊ???Ҹ߳?ϵ?͵ط??߳?ϵ??
?ռ?????SpatiaI Data??????ʾ?ռ?ʵ???λ?á???״????С?ͷֲ??????????Ϣ?????ݣ??????????????гʶ?ά????ά?Ͷ?ά?ֲ??Ĺ???????????󡣿ռ????ݵ??ص??Dz???????ʵ?屾???Ŀռ?λ?ü???̬??Ϣ?????һ???ʵ?????ԺͿռ??ϵ???????˹?ϵ????Ϣ??
?ռ????ݼ?¼??ʽRecord Format for SpatiaI Data?ռ??????ڴ??䡢?????ʹ????????еļ?¼??ʽ?????????ݼ?¼??ʽ???ļ???¼??ʽ?????߼???¼??ʽ????????¼??ʽ??
?ռ????ݽ?????ʽTransfer Format for SpatiaI Data ָ??ͬ?ĵ?????Ϣϵͳ???????Ϣϵͳ????????Ϣϵͳ֮??ʵʩ?ռ?????˫?򽻻?ʱ???õ????ݸ?ʽ????Щ??ʽ????ʸ????ʽ??դ???ʽ?ȡ?
?ռ????ݽṹSpatiaI Data Structure?ռ????ݽṹ??ָ?ռ??????ڼ?????ڵ???֯?ͱ?????ʽ??????һ???ʺ??ڼ???????????????ʹ????ռ????ݵ??߼??ṹ???ǵ???ʵ??Ŀռ????к??໥??ϵ?ij????????????Ƕ????ݵ?һ??????ͽ??͡?
?ռ?????ת??spatial data transfer???ռ????ݴ?һ?ֱ?ʾ??ʽת??Ϊ??һ?ֱ?ʾ??ʽ?Ĺ??̡?
?״?ͼ??radar image?״???Ŀ???﷢?????ߵ粨??Ȼ?????ɢ??ز????γɵ?ͼ??
????Ӱ???ͼstereo photo map??һ??????Ӱ???ͼ??һ?????????Ӱ??ͼ??ɵĵ?ͼ??
?߼?????logical consistency?ռ????????߼???ϵ?ϵ?һ???ԡ?ͬ??ʣ??߼?һ????
??״????area symbolָ???????ĸ??????Ϊ?ǿռ????ķ??š????ŵķ?Χͬ??ͼ???????йء?
ģʽʶ??pattern recognition ???ü??????ͼ?λ?Ӱ????д??????????????⣬??ʶ????ֲ?ͬģʽ??Ŀ??Ͷ???ļ?????
Ŀ???ж?visual interpretation ?ж???ͨ??ֱ?ӹ۲??????ж??????о???????ң??ͼ?????????Ƭ?Ϸ?ӳ?ĸ???Ӱ??
ƽ??ͼPlan??С??Χ??ֻ??ʾ????Ҫ?ؼ???ƽ??λ?ö?????ʾ?????̬?ĵ?ͼ??
ƽ??ֱ??????ϵRectangular Plane Coordinate System??ֱ??????ԭ????ͶӰ????ȷ???????ƽ??λ?õ?????ϵ??????ѧ?ϵ?ֱ??????ϵ??ͬ???ǣ?????????ΪX?ᣬ????ΪY?ᡣ??ͶӰ???ϣ???ͶӰ?????뾭?ߵ?ͶӰΪ???ᡢ???ͶӰΪ???ᣨY?ᣩ?Լ????ǵĽ???Ϊԭ???ֱ??????ϵ??Ϊ????????ϵ???????Ϊ????????ϵ??
??ͨ??ͼgeneral map?ۺϷ?ӳ?ر???һ??????????????Ҫ??Ȼ?????????ĵ???Ҫ?أ?????ͻ????ʾ???е?ijһ??Ҫ?صĵ?ͼ??
ǿ???Ա?׼Compulsory Standard ??һ????Χ??ͨ?????ɡ??????????ǿ?????ֶμ???ʵʩ?ı?׼?????з??????ԡ?ǿ???Ա?׼һ???䲼??????ִ᳹?С????????ɶ??Ӻ?????ش???ʧ?ĵ?λ?͸??ˣ?Ҫ?ܵ??????Ʋû?е????????Ρ?
???߹⻬line smoothingͨ???????ڲ?????????ܵ㣬???Ӹ????ڵ????ù⻬???ߵķ?????
?????ڲ?curve interpolation?????????ϵ???֪?㣬?ֶν???????????ʽ??ͨ????֪?㲢??????֪????һ?׻???׵???????????һ???????????ܵ?ķ?????
ȫ????????Ϣ??׼??????ίԱ??CSBTS/TC 230 Nation-wide Technical Standardization Committee of Geographic lnformation ?????ڹ???Ժ??׼?????????ܲ????쵼?£??ڵ?????Ϣ?????ڴ???ȫ???Ա?׼???????ļ?????֯????ίԱ???ɸ??йط????ר????ɣ???1997??12??19????????
ȫ???ֻ???ͼfully digital mapping????????Ӱ????????ֲ?ͼ?ķ?????
?Ⱥ???ͼ??thermal infrared imageɨ???Ƕ?14μm?????ĵر??????¼??ͼ??
????ͶӰarbitrary projection ?Ƕȱ??Ρ???????κͳ??ȱ???ͬʱ???ڵ?һ??ͶӰ??
??ά?ؾ?????three-dimensional landscape simulation ?Ե?????????ר??????Ϊ???ݣ??ü????????ij?????ؾ???άͼ??ļ?????
??ά??ʾthree-dimensional display ??????ͼ????ƽ??ͶӰͼ??͸??ͼ????ʽ??ƽ???ϱ??ֳ????Ĺ??̡?
ɨ?????ֻ?scan-digitizing ??ͼ???ֻ?????֮һ??????ɨ???ǽ???ͼͼ?λ?ͼ??ת????դ?????ݵķ?????
ʱ??ֱ???temporal resolution ң?????ܹ??ظ????ͬһ????Ӱ??????ʱ??????
ʵ??Entity ?????ϵ?һ????ʵ????????????ϸ??Ϊͬһ?????͵?????
????Data ??ָ??ʾһ??ָ????ֵ???????????֡????ţ?????ĸ???ȡ??????DZ?ʾ??Ϣ?ģ??????ֱ?ʾҪ?ʺϴ??䡢?????ʹ???????????ͨ???У????????ݵ?????Ϣ??ͬ??ʡ?
???ݱ༭data edit ??????ϵͳ?????ݽ?У?顢??顢?޸ġ????±??š???????????????֯?ɱ????ڲ??????ĸ?ʽ??
???ݴ?ȡ????Data Access Control ?????ݴ????ȡ???ķ?ʽ??Ȩ?޽??п??ƣ?Ϊ?˷?ֹ?Ƿ??û????????ش?ȡ??Ϣ????Ӧ???û??Ĵ?ȡ?ʸ??Ȩ?޽??м?顣ֻ?м??ϸ???û?????Ȩ????ϵͳ??
???ݹ???Data Sharing ??ͬ?û???ͬϵͳ????һ???Ĺ???ͬʹ?ø???Э???γɵ????ݿ⡣?û?????ͨ?????ֳ?????????Ի??ѯ????ȥʹ????Щ???ݡ????ݿ??????ݼ????????ߣ???????ߣ????????????û????????????ݼ?????Ϊ???????ݼ???shared data set??????׼???ʵ?????û???Ϊ???ݹ????ߣ?data sharer????
???ݼ???data retrieval ???ļ??????ݿ??洢װ???в??Һ?ѡȡ???????ݵIJ???????̡?
???ݾ???Data Accuracy ?۲?ֵ????ֵ??ɿ???????ֵ?ıƽ??̶ȡ?
?????߼?һ????Data LogicaI Consistency ָ?????????ݽṹ?????ݸ?ʽ?????Ա?????ȷ?Է??棬?????????˹?ϵ?ϵ?һ???ԡ?
????ͨ??Data Communication ??ָ??????źŻ????ݼ??ϵĴ??ͣ????????????ݵĶ???????ݡ?
????ά??Data Maintenance ϵͳά??????Ҫ????֮һ?????????????ݵ?ά?????޴?©???????ࡢ???к????ݣ??????ݸ??¡??????߼?һ???Եȷ????ά????
????ԴData Source ?ṩij??????Ҫ???ݵ?ԭʼý?塣??Ϣϵͳ??????Դ????ɿ???Ŀǰ???õ?????Դ?У??ٹ۲????ݣ????ֳ???ȡ??ʵ?????ݣ????ǰ???Ұ??ʵ?ؿ??⡢???????ݣ?̨վ?Ĺ۲??¼???ݣ?ң?????ݵȡ??ڷ????ⶨ???ݣ????????????ͻ?ѧ?????????ⶨ?????ݡ???ͼ?????ݣ????ֵ???ͼ??ר???ͼ?ȡ???ͳ?Ƶ??????ݣ????????͵?ͳ?Ʊ??????????????ݵȡ???ң?????ݣ??ɵ??桢???ջ???ң?л?õ????ݡ?
????????????data quality control ????һ???Ĺ??մ?ʩ??ʹ?????ڲɼ?????????????????????ص?????Ҫ??Ĺ??չ??̡?
????????????Data Quality Evaluation ???????????????????ķ????͹??̡????õ????۷????У????????㡢?ڲ???֤????ԭʼ???ϣ?????߾??ȵĶ???ԭʼ???ϣ??Աȡ???????????顢????ε??Ӽ?顢??Чֵ???ȡ??????Ӧ??ÿ??????Ԫ?ؽ???˵???????????ܵ????ۣ?????γ????????????۱??档
????????Ԫ??Data Quality Element ????????????????Ϣ?????λ?þ??ȡ????Ծ??ȡ??߼?һ???ԡ??????ԡ??????Ժ?????˵????
????ת??data transfer ?????ݴ?һ?ֱ?ʾ??ʽ??Ϊ??һ?ֱ?????ʽ?Ĺ??̡?
?????¶?ģ??digital slope model ??¼????????¶Ⱥ????????????????¶ȵ??????ļ???
????λ??ģ??digital situation model ??ƽ??????x??y????????ֲ????????ļ???
ͼ??legend ͼ???ʵ?λ??ӡ??ͼ????ʹ?õ?ͼʽ???ż???˵????
ͼ?????image classification ???ݸ?????ͼ????Ϣ??????ӳ?IJ?ͬ???????Ѳ?ͬ????Ŀ?????ֿ?????ͼ??????????
ͼ??ԭimage restoration ??ң??ͼ?????Ͻ??д???Ӱ???У????????У???Լ????????豸ԭ????ɵ?ɨ????©ʧ????λ?ȵĸ???????????ͼ???ؽ??ɽӽ??ڻ???ȫ???˻???ԭʼ????ͼ??Ĺ??̡?ͬ??ʣ?ͼ??ָ?
ͼ??????Image Data ????ֵ??ʾ?ĸ????أ?pixel???ĻҶ?ֵ?ļ??ϡ?????ʵ?????ͼ??һ????ͼ????ÿһ????ǿ????Ƶ?ף???ɫ??????ʾ????ͼ????Ϣת??????????Ϣʱ???뽫ͼ??ֽ?Ϊ?ܶ?С??????ЩС?????Ϊ???أ???????һ????ֵ????ʾ???ĻҶȣ????ڲ?ɫͼ???ú졢?̡?????ԭɫ??trichromatic????????ʾ??˳??س?ȡÿһ?????ص???Ϣ???Ϳ?????һ????ɢ????????????һ????????ͼ???ڵ?????Ϣϵͳ??һ??ָդ?????ݡ?
ͼ????ϢImage lnformation ??Ԫ?????????ͻ???ֵ???ṩ????Ϣ??
ͼ??????Graphic Data ͼ?ζ??????ʽ??ʾ??ͼ?ζ?????ָͼԪ??primitive????ͼ?Σ?segment????ͼԪ?е㡢?ߡ??桢?ַ??????š???Ԫ???еȡ?ͼ??????ͼԪ??ɣ????緿???е??š???????ÿ??ͼԪ?ļ?????״Ҫ??????λ?ã??ַ????뼰?ָߡ???λ???ַ????ݺ?ȣ???Ԫ???м???ο?λ?ã???ص???ɫ???Լ?????????ʵ?ִ??????ڵ?????Ϣϵͳ??һ??ָʸ?????ݡ?
???˹?ϵtopological relation ָ???????˼???ѧԭ???ĸ??ռ????ݼ???໥??ϵ?????ý?㡢???κͶ????????ʾ??ʵ??֮????ڽӡ??????Ͱ????ȹ?ϵ??
???˼???topological retrieval???ļ??в??Һ?ѡ????????˹?ϵ?????ݵIJ???????̡?
???˽ṹtopological structure ???????˹?ϵ???пռ????ݵ???֯??ʽ??
????ṹgrid structure ?Ը?????ԪΪ?????ĵ????ռ???????֯??ʽ??
΢??ͼ??microwave image ??΢??????ƽ??????巢???΢?????????γɵ?ͼ??
??????Ƭsatellite photograph װ?????????ϵ?ң??????ȡ????Ƭ??
??????Ƭͼsatellite photo map ?ö??ž?????????????Ƭ????һ???ļ??ξ???Ҫ????Ƕ?ɴ?Ƭ??????Ӱ????Ƕͼ??
λ?þ???positional accuracy ?ռ??λ??ȡ????ֵ??????ʵ????ֵ?ķ??ϳ̶ȡ?
??????ʵvirtual reality ?ɼ???????ɵĿ????û????Ӿ???????????????ʵʩ??????ʹ?û????????侳֮?е????컷???????ڲ?????ѧ?????е?Ӧ?ÿ??Կ?????ͼ??֪?????ڼ??????Ϣʱ????????չ??
ң??remote sensing ???Ӵ????屾??????ң?????ռ?Ŀ????ĵ?Ų???Ϣ????????????????ʶ??Ŀ?????ʾĿ???X????״??С???໥??ϵ????仯???ɵĿ?ѧ??????ͬ??ʣ?ң?м???
Ҫ??Feature ???й?ͬ???Ժ͹?ϵ??һ?????????·????һ??ȷ????ʵ?弰??Ŀ??ı?ʾ????ijһ????·????
Ӱ???ͼphoto map ?Ժ??պͺ???ң??Ӱ??Ϊ???????????ξ???????????߻???????ע?ǣ?????ͼ?????ۺϱ?ʾ??ͼ???ϵĵ?ͼ??
Բ??ͶӰcylindrical projection ??Բ????Ϊ??Ӱ???һ??ͶӰ????????Բ???????ŵ????????????????(??)??????γ??ͶӰ??Բ?????ϣ??ٽ?Բ????չ??Ϊƽ????ɡ?
Բ׶ͶӰconic projection ??Բ׶??Ϊ??Ӱ???һ??ͶӰ????????Բ׶?????ŵ??????????????(??)??????γ??ͶӰ??Բ׶???ϣ??ٽ?Բ׶??չ??Ϊƽ????ɡ?
?ؼ???Ϣϵͳcadastral information system ?ڼ??????Ӳ??֧???£??Ѹ??ֵؼ???Ϣ???տռ?ֲ??????ԣ???һ???ĸ?ʽ???롢?????????????ռ??????????ļ????????ϵͳ??
ͼ?????ռ???Ϣ???伸???????????Ի??ֳɵ?ר?⡣
???????ݲɼ?ʵ?ص??顢????????ͳ?IJ??????????????Dz??????????߲???????ȫ??λϵͳ??GPS?????ִ?ң?м?????????ң??ѧ????????Ӱ???????˿??ղ顣
??Ϣ??????ͳ????ͼ????????Ϊ??Ϣ?????????ٶ???ͼ??????һ?????ղ?Ʒ??ͨ??ʹ?÷??š????????Ƶ?ѡ??ȷ?ʽ?????ռ???Ϣ??ģʽ??????????Ǵ?ͳ??͸??ͼ??????????ԭʼ???ܵ??ܶ????ƣ???ͼ?û????????׻??Ԥ???????ݡ?Ҳ????˵???û?ֻ???ڴ??????ղ?Ʒ?????޷???????????Ϊ????Ч????ʽ????Ӧ??????????ı仯??
?????????????巶?????洢????ԭʼ???ݵ????????ݣ??ɸ????û?????????????ݵ???ʾ??????ͷ??ࡣ???巶????һ??????????????ͼѧ?͵???ѧ?????巽????
դ??դ??ṹ???????ֱ?ӵĿռ????ݽṹ????ָ????????滮??Ϊ??С???Ƚ??????ڵ????????У?ÿ????????Ϊһ????Ԫ?????????С??ж??壬??????һ???????ʾ?????ص????????ͻ???ֵ???????????ָ???????Լ?¼??ָ?롣??ˣ?դ??ṹ???Թ????????????ʾ?ռ?????????ֲ?????????֯????֯?е?ÿ?????ݱ?ʾ?????????ķǼ??????????????ص㣺???????ԣ???λ????????????ֱ?Ӽ?¼???Ա??????????ڵ?λ??????????к?ת??Ϊ??Ӧ?????꣬????λ?Ǹ????????????ݼ??е?λ?õõ??ģ???դ??ṹ?У?????һ??դ??Ԫ??ʾ????״???????????????һ??????դ??Ԫ??ʾ??ÿ??դ??Ԫ???ֻ?????????ڵ?Ԫ?????ϣ?????????ü??????????Ե?????դ??Ԫ?ļ??ϱ?ʾ??ÿ??դ??Ԫ???ж????????????ڵ?Ԫͬ??һ??????
??????topology???ô???Դ??ϣ???ģ?????ԭ??????״???о???????ѧ?Ǽ???ѧ??һ????֧?????о??????˱任???ܹ????ֲ???ļ???????——???????ԣ????????ԣ?һ??????һ?????εĶ˵㣬һ??????һ??????ı߽??ϣ??????????ԣ?????֮??ľ??룬???εij??ȣ???????ܳ?????????????ֽṹӦ??????Ψһ??ʶ??????α?ʶ??????????ָ?룬?ڽӶ????ָ?룬?߽????ӣ???Χ????????Сx??y????ֵ????
?????ռ??о?????????Ҫ?????˸??1???????ԣ??????ڽ?㴦???໥???ӹ?ϵ????2????????????壺?????????β?????????˶???ε??ڲ????򣻣?3???ڽ??ԣ?ͨ?????廡?ε????ұ߼??䷽???????жϻ??????Ҷ???ε??ڽ??ԡ?
ʸ????ʵ???????α?ڵ???????Ҫ?ٽڵ????ʶ??Ľڵ㣬???????ߺ??????????ӵĵط????絺״α???——??ʾ????һ????״????Σ????????δ?????һ??????Ķ?????ڲ?????????????????????ƽ??·???????ǽ???·???ཻ?ĵط????ڵ?——??ʾ?????߼????ӵ?????㣩????ҡ?ڽ??????ʱ??Ϊҡ?ڣ???Դ??3?ֿ??ܵĴ??????ͣ??պ?ʧ?ܵĶ???Σ?Ƿͷ?ߣ??????????̶Ȳ?????δ??Ӧ?????ӵ?Ŀ??????????ͷ?ߣ??????߳???????֮???ӵ?ʵ?塣?????????????????ع?ͬ?߽??߽??еIJ??????ֻ????̣??ڱ߽???λ?ã???һ???Dz?ֻһ?εر????ֻ????߶Ȳ?????Ĺ??ұ߾??ߣ??????????ޣ??ر????׳????????????ֱ??Ρ???ע???󣺶?ʧ??ע???ظ???ע?????쳣??????????ж?ʧ?ڵ?Ķ???Ρ???ʧ?Ļ???
?ռ??????????1???ռ???Ϣ?IJ????????????εIJ????????????????״????????2???ռ???Ϣ???ࣺ??Χ?ּ????ࡢ?????ܡ????δ??ڡ???????????3?????ӷ?????????ε??ӡ????????Ρ????????Σ???4???????????·??????????ַƥ?䡢??Դƥ?䣻??5???ռ?ͳ?Ʒ???????ֵ?????Ʒ??????ṹ????????6????????????¶ȷ???????????????ɼ??Ⱥ??໥?ɼ??ȷ?????
ŷ??????ͨ???Ŀռ??????ԣ????ն??????ڿն??????Ķ?????????????Ϊŷ??????????ֻ??һ????һ??????????Щ????????Ϊŷ???????????ϣ?ŷ????=???ն?????-????Ƭ??-1????????ն??????ⲿ??????????????Ķ???οն?????????Ƭ??????Ƭ?????ڶ???ε?????????ʱŷ?????Dz?ȷ???ġ?
?????????????????????һ?ֺ?????ϵ????ʱ?䡢Ħ???????ĵȣ?????Щ???ھ???????ķ???????????????Ϊ???????롣
?????پ??????????ϱ??????ϵľ???????ڶ????????ϵľ??룬??d??i??j??=|xi-xj|+|yi-yj|??????һ??????????????????????????????򲼾ֵij???ֵ?????һ?㵽????һ??ľ??????????ϱ??????????еľ???????ڶ????????????еľ???????????پ????ֳ?Ϊ???⳵???룬?????پ??벻?Ǿ??벻??????????????䶯ʱ?????ľ???ͻ᲻ͬ??
????????ν??????ָ????ͳһ???Ե?ʵ????????߽??㼯?????????????Ľ?С????ʵ??ռ䡣?????ܾ??????ض???ʵ??ռ??з????????Ե?һ???ԡ???????ֱ?????????չ????
????????????ָ???????ݿ?ĵ㡢?ߡ???ʵ????????Զ?????????Χһ?????ȷ?Χ?ڵĻ??????????ʵ?壬?Ӷ?ʵ?ֿռ???????ˮƽ?????????չ?Ŀռ??????????????????ij?̶ֳ????ܿ???Ŀǰ???ڵ?Ħ?????桢???Ρ??ϰ???ȣ?Ҳ????˵?????ܻ???????????λ?õĻ????ϣ????ǻ???????ʵ???Եijɷ֡?ȷ????????????????ֻ???????????????????????򻺳??????ɲ????????????Ϸ???Ȩ????????
ͳ?Ʊ????????Ǻ???zֵ????ò??zֵ?ֳ?Ϊ?߶?ֵ??????λ?ñ?һϵ??x??y????Զ???????????Χ?ڷֲ???zֵҲ??????Ϊ?Ǹ߳?ֵ?????Dz??ؾ???????һ?ֶ?????ʵ???ϣ??ڿɶ?????????ڳ??ֵ?????ɲ???????ֵ?????磬??????????ͱ??????ݣ?????????Ϊ????˱??档һ??ʹ?õ???????ͳ?Ʊ??棬??Ϊ?ڿ??ǵķ?Χ??zֵ??????????Ҫ?ص?ͳ??ѧ?ı???
?ռ??ֵ?ռ??ֵ?????ڽ???ɢ??IJ???????ת??Ϊ?????????????棬?Ա????????ռ?????ķֲ?ģʽ???бȽϣ????????˿ռ??ڲ???????????㷨???ռ??ڲ??㷨??ͨ????֪???????????ͬһ????δ֪?????ݡ??ռ??????㷨??ͨ????֪????????ݣ????????????????ݡ?
???ܶ????????????ڵ??ߵ??ܳ??ȳ?????????????
??ͨ????ͨ???Ǻ??????縴???Ե????ȣ?????γָ????αָ?????????????У?γָ?????ڸ????ռ???????ڵ???????????ܴ??ڵ???????????֮?ȣ?αָ?????ں?????·???ڵ㱻????·?????ӵij̶ȳ?Ϊαָ??,???ڵ?ǰ???ڵĻ?·??????ܴ??ڵ????·??֮?ȡ?
ͼ?ε?????һ????ѡ?????ͼ??????ʾ??ר????Ϣ??????һ????ѡ?????ͼ??????ʾ??ר????Ϣ֮?ϡ?
դ???Զ?????????????Ԫ?Ķ???ε?????һ???򵥵Ĺ??̣???Ϊ????????????Ԫ??ɵIJ?????Ŀ飬????????ͬ??һ????ֵ????صı?ע?????????ʣ?????ԪΪ?????Ķ???ε???ȱ???ռ?׼ȷ?ԣ???Ϊ????Ԫ?ܴ󣬵????????ڼ򵥵ĵ??????κ????????ε??ӵ???ͬ???֣????????ļ??ԣ???˿??Ի?ýϸߵ????̶Ⱥʹ????ٶȡ?
????ʸ????????ξ???ʵ??书???ϵĹ?ϵ???綨???????????????????Ҷ???Σ??????߶μ?Ĺ?ϵȥ??齻ͨ???????????ݸ???ʵ????????????????ѡ??ʵ?塣??ҲΪ???Ӷ???????ͼ?㽨????һ?ַ??????Ӷ?ȷ????????ÿ??ʵ????????ܹ??????ǣ????????ʹ??????????ϵĺϳɶ?????ܹ???֧?֡????????˽????????С??????????Ԫ(lcgu)??
ʸ??????ε??????????κ????????ε???ʹ?õ???Ҫ?????ǣ??߲??????dz??????????????ڡ?????????????ǿ?????İ취?????????ⶨÿ???ߵĽ???㣬???????ν?Ľ?㡣????ʸ??????εĵ??ӣ????????ǻ?????ͬ?ģ????˱???????ص???????⣬??Ҫ??????֮????ϵ?Ķ?????ߵ????ԡ?     
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